Monthly Archives: September 2011

LEST WE FORGET….Why The LTTE Was The Scourge Of Sri Lanka

Deadliest attacks
Attack
Date
Location
Death toll
Sources
June 11, 1990
600-774
October 16, 2006
Digampathaha, Dambulla North Central Province (Army personnel)
92–103
June 15, 2006
KebithigollewaNorthern Province
66
September 18, 1999
Gonagala, Eastern Province
54
July 24, 1996
Dehiwala, Western Province
64
January 31, 1996
91
October 16, 1995
Villages in eastern Sri Lanka
120
May 25, 1995
Kallarawa, Eastern Province
42
October 15, 1991
Palliyagodella, Eastern Province
109
August 4, 1990
Kattankudy, Eastern Province
147
July 2, 1987
Aranthalawa, North Central Province
35
Habarana bus massacre
April 17, 1987
Habarana, North Central Province
127
May 14, 1985
146
November 30, 1984
Kent and Dollar Farm,Mullaitivu
62
3 May 1986
21
February 20, 2009
2

The following incomplete list is constantly being updated. Revisions and sourced additions are welcome.
1972
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
September 17
A carnival held at the Duraiappah Stadium is bombed by The Tamil New Tigers.
unknown
1974
·                    Throughout 1974, the Tamil New Tigers and other Tamil rebel groups launched several bomb attacks targeting the Mayor of Jaffna and Jaffna civilians.[11]
These include:
·                    hands bombs lobbied into a jeep at the Kankesanturai Police Sation
·                    dynamite ignited at the home of V. Ponnambalam, a member of the Communist Party
·                    dynamite thrown into Chenkathanai Railway Station causing extensive damage
·                    bombs exploded in the Grand Bazar, Jaffna
·                    CTB buses set on fire[11]
1975
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
July 27
Mayor of Jaffna Alfred Duraiappah is shot to death by LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran in the first major attack by the group.
1
1
1976
1976, saw a series of brazen robberies committed by the LTTE.
In March 1976, LTTE members robbed the People’s Bank at Puttur of Rs. 668,000 in cash and jewellery. This was followed by raids on Multi-Purpose Co-Operative Services in Puloly and Madagal.
1977
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
February 14
PC Karunandhi is shot to death for investigating crimes committed by the LTTE.
1
1
May 18
Two officers named Shanmuganathan are killed for the same reason
2
2
1978
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
January
K. Kanagaratnam is shot in the head by Uma Maheshwaran and other LTTE members for switching party affliction from the TULF to the UNP.
1
April 7
Inspector Bastianpillai and Sub-Inspector Perampalan are shot to death along with their chauffeur while chasing down Maheshawan. Bastianpillai’s body is then mutilated and their car is set on fire after its radio equipment is taken.
3
3
May
Inspector Pathmanathan is killed in his home.
1
1
June
Inspector Kumaru is killed while shopping.
1
1
December 5
Police Constable Kingsley Perera and Satchithanadan are shot to death during a raid on the People’s Bank at Nallur. The LTTE robbed the bank over over 1 million rupees in cash.
1
1
2
·                    In July, 4 robberies are carried out.
o                               2 from CTB buses
o                               1 from a van
o                               Rs. 15,000 from a travelling salesman[11]
·                    In September a CTB bus is set on fire.[11]
·                    Later schoolteacher salaries were robbed in Point Pedro.[11]
·                    On September 7, 1978 a bomb is planted on an Air Ceylon plane flying from Kankesanturai to Colombo. It exploded after landing while in the hangar.[11]
·                    Some time later the Kopai Multi-Purpose Co-Operative Society was robbed of Rs. 30,000 using a stolen vehicle. The owner of the vehicle was thrown into his luggage compartment.[11]
1979
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
S. A. Emmanuel of Chankanai, Thaadi Thangarajah of Kondavil, A. Krishnagol of Velvettiturai, T. Poopalasingham of Chunnakam and A. Sivarajah of Thondamannar are executed by the LTTE for providing evidence against them to the police.
5
5
PC Gnanasambandan, PC Sivanesan, Inspector Guruswamy, S. Swarnarajah and his wife are executed by the LTTE.
5
5
1983
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
July 23
Four Four Bravo: 13 soldiers are killed in an LTTE ambush inJaffna, sparking anti-Tamil riots that cause the death of approximately 4000 Tamils across Sri Lanka during four days, in what would be later labelled asBlack July.
13
13
1984
1984 marked the intensification of the war between the Tamil separatists and the Sri Lankan government, as well as the first reports of civilian massacres by the LTTE.
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
November 11
Dollar Farm massacre:33 civilians which included women and children were attacked in Dollar Farm village in the night by an armed group made up of LTTE cadres.
33
33
November 30
Kent Farm massacre:Following the attack on the Dollar Farm village, a second night raid was launched by the LTTE terrorists which targeted the Kent Farm village, 29 civilians including women and children were massacred. They also looted and set fire on to victims houses.
29
29
December 1
Kokilai massacre: LTTE cadres kill eleven Sinhalese civilians in the fishing village of Kokilai.
11
11
December 31
LTTE members kill 4 Tamil civilians and dump them outside of Batticaloa for refusing to fight for the group. Altogether 30 Tamil civilians were killed for similar reasons in 1984.
30
30
1985
1985 marked a major escalation of hostilities. For the first time the LTTE attacked a major Sinhalese majority town killing 146 unarmed civilians. The impact of this attack was felt across the island and received world wide attention.
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
January 20
22 soldiers and 10 civilians are killed in a train explosion set off by the LTTE.
33
33
May 5
Wilpattu Village Massacre:Wilpattu, a Sinhalese village inAnuradhapura District, was the target of an raid of an armed group of LTTE terrorists, who killed 18 villagers that included women and children.
18
18
May 14
Anuradhapura massacre:LTTE gunmen shoot dead 146 Sinhalese civilians and injure 85 others as they were praying at Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi, a sacred Buddhist shrine inAnuradhapura.
146
146
May 14
LTTE cadres shoot dead 18 Sinhalese civilians in theWilpattu forest reserve while they are fleeing from the massacre of 146 civilians earlier in the day (see Anuradhapura massacre).
18
18
May 30
LTTE cadres shoot and kill five Sinhalese civilians in the villages of Mahandapura And Dehiwatta. People of these villages had previously received numerous threats from the LTTE associates. This massacre was part of a series of massacres aimed at displacing Sinhalese from the North East of Sri Lanka.
5
5
June 4
Dehiwatta Village Massacre:Armed with sharp weapons over 100 LTTE terrorists killed 15 villagers on their sleeping mats in the village ofDehiwatta. Victims included women and children, which were the majority killed.
15
15
June 11
13 Sinhalese civilians are shot dead by LTTE gunmen in Dehiwatta.
13
13
August 2
LTTE cadres shot dead three Sinhalese Buddhist monks and three civilians, while they were worshipping at the Ruhunu Somavathiya Temple.
6
6
August 14
Aranthalawa Village Massacre: Seven Sinhalese villagers were tortured and killed at Aranthalawa. They were targeted by an armed group of LTTE terrorists.
7
7
August 18
Namalwatta Village Massacre I:Seven villagers were hacked to death by a group of LTTE terrorists who were armed with sharp weapons.
7
7
November 7
Namalwatta Village Massacre II:Ten villagers, including women and children were raided and executed atNamalwatta for the second time.
10
10
December 20
Six Madhu pilgrims, abducted by the LTTE on 12/12/85 were executed.
6
1986
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
February 2
Kantale Village massacre:Armed with small arms and swords LTTE terrorist raided the village of Kantalekilling 19 civilians.
19
February 19
When refugees from Serunuwara, Dehiwatta were being escorted by army personnel along Ella/Kantalai road, LTTE exploded a mine killing 35 civilians and four army personnel.
39
May 3
Air Lanka Flight UL512:LTTE bomb explodes aboardAir Lanka flight carrying mainly French, British and Japanese tourists killing 21 (including 13 foreigners – of whom 2 British, 2 German, 3 French, 2 Japanese, 1 Maldivian and 1 Pakistani) and injuring 41 on Bandaranaike International Airport.
21
May 5
Kinniya Village massacre:Four Moor civilians were tortured and killed by a group of LTTE terrorists.
4
4
May 6
Central Telegraph Office Bombing:The Central Telegraph Office, Colombo was the target on a bomb detonated by the LTTE terrorists which killed 14 civilians who were at the office.
14
May 25
Mahadivulwewa Village massacre:An armed group of LTTE cadres killed 20 Sinhalese by shooting them dead and set alight 20 houses.
20
20
June 2
Trincomalee 3rd Mile post:Civilian homes at the 3rd mile post, Trincomalee were stormed by a group of armed LTTE terrorists who killed 10 civilians, including women and children
10
June 4
Andankulam Village massacre:17–20 civilians, including Ven. Bakamune Subaddalanakara Thero, were attacked, tortured and killed by LTTE terrorists in the village ofAndankulam.
17–20
17–20
June 11
22 people were killed and another 75 others were injured when two bombs were detonated simultaneously by the LTTE on two buses heading to Kantalai and Colombo respectively. The first bus was front of the Bank of CeylonTrincomalee branch and the other in close proximity to the SP office.
22
June 21
Wilgamwehera Village massacre:9 civilians, including children, were murdered in theWilgamwehera hamlet by LTTE terrorists.
9
June 25
Bomb exploded in a vehicle by LTTE killed 16 Sinhalese.
16
16
July 8
Monkey Bridge Village massacre: 15 Sinhalese villagers were shot to death by LTTE cadres.
15
15
July 9
Mollipothana Village massacre:Mullipothana village was stormed at night by a group of armed LTTE terrorists who killed 16 civilians most of them being women and children.
16
July 13
Pavakkulam Village massacre:Nine Tamil and two Sinhalese villages were killed by four LTTE cadres who had arrived in a jeep to tract No. 16,Pavakkulam.
2
9
11
July 19
Beruwil & Wadigawewa Village massacre:The villages of Beruwil and Waigawewawere stormed by large armed group of LTTE terrorists numbering over 100, killing 17 villagers including women and children, as well as causing serious cut wounds to at least 5 others.
17
July 19
LTTE cadres shot dead twelve Sinhalese villagers.
12
12
July 22
LTTE cadres exploded a land-mine on a civilian bus, killing 32 Sinhalese civilians and injuring 20 others.
32
32
July 24
A bomb exploded inside a bus proceeding from Vavuniya to Anuradhapura; killing 13 passengers and injuring 40 others.
13
July 24
About 50 LTTE cadres entered Damana, a Sinhalese village, and killed nine persons; another 13 were injured.
9
September 17
Kantalai massacre: LTTE cadres entered block No.4 of the Sugar Corporation, Kantalaiand ten civilians were shot to death.
7
1
2
10
September 17
Wadigawewa Village massacre:Following theKantalai massacre, the village ofWadigawewa was attacked by the same group of terrorists who killed 12 villagers including women and children.
12
1987
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
4 February
Manthottam massacre:Village of Manthottam which is mostly made up of Sinhalese was attacked by a group of 50 armed LTTE terrorists, who murdered 8 villagers after brutally torturing them. The death toll was reduced since villagers had hid in the surrounding jungles anticipating such an attack.
8
-
-
8
7 February
Arantalawa massacre:In a night house-to-house raid LTTE terrorists armed with swords, machetes, clubs and small-arms killed 27 to 28 civilians including children and women. Pregnant mothers were found hacked to death and with their necks slashed.
?
?
?
27-28
7 March
Awarantalawa massacre:Six civilian were killed when the LTTE detonated a land-mine as troops were passing. Also killed were 7 soldiers and 4 NAF soldiers.
?
?
?
17
22 March
Serunuwara Horowpathana massacre: LTTE cadres shot dead 26 Sinhalese villagers.
26
?
?
26
25 March
Serunuwara massacre:Armed LTTE terrorists stormed Serunuwara village, mostly inhabited by Sinhalese, and hoarded the farming families at gunpoint to a road. They where then shot there in execution style. In total 25 villagers were killed, most of whom were women and children.
25
-
-
25
17 April
Habarana massacre: LTTE terrorists shot dead 127 Sinhalese civilians, including 31 police and security force personnel who were travelling in 3 buses and 2 trucks toTrincomalee. The terrorists clad in military uniforms stopped the vehicles and dragged out the passengers and shot them to death with automatic weapons after brutally assaulting them with clubs. Over 70 with injuries were air lifted. The dead included many children and 12 off duty security personnel. Most of the victims were families visiting their relatives for the new year.
127
-
-
127
20 April
Jayanthipura Massacre: A majority Sinhalese village of Jayanthipura was raided by a group of armed LTTE terrorists who brutally murdered 15 civilians including women and children.
15
-
-
15
21 April
Central Bus Station Bombing:A Bomb detonated by LTTE operatives at the central bus terminal of Colombo, killed 113 civilians, two policemen and a soldier; 298 others were injured.
?
?
?
116
21 April
Jayanthipura massacre:15 Sinhalese villagers were shot dead by LTTE cadres.
15
?
?
15
29 May
Attack on Kadawathmadu:A group of armed LTTE terrorists raided the majority Sinhalese village of Kadawathmadu killing 7 civilians and leaving 5 others injured. Due to the terrorist threat, the villagers slept in jungle hideouts during the night, which reduced the casualties.
7
-
-
7
2 June
Aranthalawa Massacre:In the first massacre of Buddhist monks in modern Sri Lankan history, a bus carrying Buddhist monks were stopped by LTTE in Arantalawa and killed 32Buddhist monks, including Chief Priest Ven. Hegoda Indrasara with only one monk survived this massacre.
32
-
-
32
5 June
Nelliady attack:In the first suicide attack by the LTTE Black Tigers, small truck laden with explosives is driven into aSri Lanka Army base in Nelliady, Jaffna peninsula byVallipuram Vasanthan. Over 50 soldiers are killed along with Vasanthan.
50
-
-
50
11 June
Veppankulam attack:13 civilians and a soldier are killed when a private van en rout from Horowpathana toTrincomalee was blowup by LTTE pressure mine.
?
?
?
14
12 June
Godapotta massacre: At a meeting to to discuss a new temple was attacked by LTTE terrorists, who surrounded the temple and attacked the gathering of over 175 villagers resulting in the deaths of eight villagers, a soldier and six people were injured.
?
?
?
9
21 June
Godapotta massacre: The hamlet of Godapotha, a majority Sinhalese village in Polonnaruwa was raided by a group of armed LTTE terrorists, killing 8 villagers and injuring one. The death toll was reduced since villagers had hid in the surrounding jungles anticipating such an attack.
?
?
?
8
29 July
Thoppur massacre:9 villagers are killed after being brutally tortured by LTTE terrorists armed with swords, machetes and small arms.
?
?
?
9
6 October
Batticaloa:18 Sinhalese civilians are shot dead by LTTE terrorists.
18
-
-
18
6 October
Tharavi massacre:Tharavi, a majority Sinhalese village is stormed by over 100 LTTE terrorists armed with swords, machetes and small arms and butchered 25 civilians, mostly women and children including infants and pregnant mothers.
25
-
-
25
6 October
Sagarapura massacre: A house-to-house massacre is carried out by LTTE terrorists, clubbing children to death in front of their parents, and hacking the adults to death using sharp weapons. 27 Sinhalese villagers are shot dead. After looting their victims homes, these are set alight while burning the wounded victims alive. Another 6 villagers survived the attack with serious cut wounds.
27
-
-
27
6 October
Valaichchenai massacre:40 Sinhalese passengers in the night-mail train from Batticaloa are killed by LTTE terrorists who stop the train.
40
-
-
40
7 October
Pottuvil Monargala Road massacre:25 Sinhalese passengers travailing by bus are shot dead LTTE terrorists, who also kill five motor-cyclists who came along the same route.
?
?
?
30
10 October
Ganthalawa massacre:Gantalawa hamlet in Kantala is attacked and 9-10 civilians are brutally murder with 3 wounded by LTTE terrorists armed with swords, machetes and small arms.
9-10
-
-
9-10
15 October
Ella Kantalai massacre:Ella Kantalai, a majority Sinhalese village is attacked by LTTE terrorists armed with swords, machetes and small arms attacked killing 14 civilians including women and children.
14
-
-
14
16 October
Pulimodai massacre:A private bus is stopped by LTTE terrorists, who take out the Sinhalese people killing 11 including three policemen.
11
-
-
11
19 October
Kalkudah attack: A Private bus transporting Tamil passengers blown up by a LTTE land-mine, killing 40 persons and an IPKF soldier
?
?
?
41
9 November
Maradana bombing:23 civilians are killed and 106 injured by LTTE terrorists who exploded a bomb and shoot dead another 15.
?
?
?
38
11 November
Kalkuda massacre: 7 Sinhalese people selling fish are shot dead by LTTE terrorists.
7
-
-
7
12 November
Cheddikulam massacre:12 Tamil persons and 13 PLOTE members are killed when their van blown up by an LTTE land-mine.
-
24
-
24
15 December
Devalagodella massacre:Devalagodella and Somavathiya villages are attacked by LTTE terrorists armed with small arms and sharp weapons, killing 7-9 civilians.
?
?
?
9
22 December
Morawewa massacre: 5-6 Sinhalese and a Tamil are abducted and tortured to death by LTTE terrorists.
5
1
-
6
31 December
Mahadivulwewa massacre:10 villagers are shot dead and 15 houses burnt by LTTE terrorists.
?
?
?
10
31 December
Kathankadu massacre:A Muslim majority village Kathankadu is raided by LTTE terrorists armed with sharp weapons and small arms, who carried out the killing of 30 civilians, including women and children with bodies severely mutilated.
-
-
30
30
1988
·                    March 2: Morawewa, Trincomalee: LTTE cadres shot dead 14 Sinhalese villagers.[7]
·                    March 11: Suhadagama Horowpathana Anuradhapura: A group of LTTE cadres attacked a private bus, 22 Sri 2218, at Suhadagamaw with small arms and grenades, killing 19 passengers and injuring nine others.[7]
·                    March 14: Galmitiyawa, Kantalai: LTTE cadres shot dead 13 Sinhalese villagers at Galmitiyawa.[7]
·                    March 15: Kivulkade, Morawewa, Trincomalee: Two groups of LTTE operatives entered the village and killed seven Sinhalese villagers.[7]
·                    March 17: Deegavapiya, Damana, Ampara: LTTE cadres hacked to death 13 Sinhalese villagers.[7]
·                    March 22: Pudukulam, Vavuniya: Between ten and 15 LTTE cadres attacked the Sinhalese village and killed six villagers. Another three were injured.[7]
·                    March 22: Medavachchi-kulam Vavuniya: LTTE cadres shot dead nine Sinhalese villagers.[7]
·                    March 29: Wewalketiya: A LTTE bomb exploded inside CTB bus 29 Sri 9037 Anuradhapura which was proceeding from Horowpathana to Medavachchiya, killing nine passengers and injuring 14 others.[7]
·                    March 31: Saindamaradu, Kalmunai: LTTE cadres attacked the village, killing ten Muslims and seven Tamils.[7]
·                    April 8: Horowpathana, Meegaswewa, Anuradhapura: LTTE gunmen killed 14 Sinhalese.[7]
·                    May 1: Sittaru Kantalai, Trincomalee: LTTE cadres exploded a land-mine on a CTB bus killing twelve Sinhalese, nine Muslims and five others, who were not identified.[7]
·                    July 28: Ethawetunawewa, Weli Oya: LTTE operatives hacked to death 16 Sinhalese villagers.[7]
·                    August 16: Trincomalee (opposite Clock Tower): LTTE cadres exploded a bomb, killing sixe Sinhalese, two Muslims, one Tamil and a soldier; 19 persons sustained injuries.[7]
·                    August 25: Marawila, Polonnaruwa: LTTE cadres killed eleven civilians by cutting their necks.[7]
·                    September 10: 16th Colony, Central Camp Ampara: LTTE cadres shot dead seven Sinhalese and four Tamils.[7]
·                    October 9: Mahakongaskada Medavachchiya: LTTE cadres shot dead 44 Sinhalese villagers and set fire to eleven houses.[7]
·                    November 14: Paniketiyawa, Gomarakadawela Trincomalee: LTTE cadres shot dead 28 Sinhalese, including two security force personnel.[7]
1989
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
January 17
9
9
February 2
11
11
February 11
37
37
February 11
6
6
February 27
38
38
August 17
Nochchikulam Village massacre: An IDE explosion, killing eight civilians and injuring four others.
8
1990
·                    June 10: The LTTE signals the breakdown of ceasefire talks by overrunning police stations located throughout the North East of Sri Lanka. The LTTE massacred most of the 400 to 600 police officers captured after they had surrendered to the LTTE during this attack.[55]
·                    June 10: Over 600 unarmed police officers are shot dead by the LTTE in Police Stations across eastern Sri Lanka.[56][4][5]
·                    June 15: 11 soldiers are killed in Kalmunai by the LTTE and their bodies are desecrated.[57]
·                    July 23: Veeracholai, Batticaloa: LTTE cadres killed eight persons, thought to be Muslims and hanged them on trees.[7]
·                    July 24: Damminna, Aralaganvila Polonnaruwa: LTTE cadres hacked to death eight Sinhalese villagers.[7]
·                    July 25: Wan Ela, Trincomalee: LTTE cadres hacked to death nine Sinhalese villagers who were cutting firewood.[7]
·                    July 26: Thammannaelawaka Medavachchiya: LTTE cadres hacked and shot to death 19 Sinhalese and set fire to 30 houses.[7]
·                    July 30: Akkaraipattu Batticaloa: LTTE cadres shot dead 14 Muslims in the town.[7]
·                    July 31: Podankadu, Peraru, Kantalai: Ten Tamil civilians were killed by unidentified gunmen.[7]
·                    August 3: Over 30 Tamil Tiger cadres attacked four Muslim mosques in Kattankudy in Batticaloa district, killing at least 147 Muslims who were praying in the mosques.[58]
Further information: Kattankudi mosque massacre
·                    August 5: Mulliyankadu, Ampara: LTTE cadres killed 17 Muslim farmers working in a paddy-field.[7]
·                    August 6: Ampara: LTTE cadres killed 33 Muslim farmers working in a paddy-field.[7]
·                    August 7: Bandaraduwa, Uhana, Ampara: About 40 LTTE cadres went to a Sinhalese village and killed 30 Sinhalese and injured four.[7]
·                    August 8: Navagamuwa, Anuradhapura: LTTE cadres attacked a Sinhalese village and killed seven civilians; four persons were injured.[7]
·                    August 11: Division 3 & 6 Eravur LTTE cadres attacked Div. 3 & 6, Eravur, killing 116 Muslims and injuring 20 others.[7]
·                    August 13: 15th Mile Post, Pulmoddai, Weli Oya: Twenty-five civilians who were travelling in a lorry from Negombo at Kokuvil were ambushed by LTTE cadres, who killed 14 of them.[7]
·                    August 13: Awarantalawa Vavuniya A Muslim village adjoining a Sinhalese village was attacked by LTTE cadres; nine Muslims and one Sinhalese were killed. Three others were injured.[7]
·                    September 13: Poonani, Batticaloa LTTE cadres hacked to death seven Muslim civilians and injured one.[7]
·                    September 19: Vellamundal, Puttalam: LTTE cadres killed 23 Sinhalese and set fire to eleven houses at the fishing village.[7]
·                    September 21: Pudukudiyirippu Ampara: LTTE cadres attacked the village killing 15 Muslims and injuring eleven.[7]
·                    September 30: Peraweltalawa, Maha Oya, Ampara: LTTE cadres hacked to death nine Sinhalese villagers.[7]
·                    October: The LTTE expelled, within 48 hours, 80,000 Muslims living under their control in the northern districts of the island: Jaffna, Kilinochchi, Mullaittivu, and Mannar. Each civilian was only allowed to carry 150 Sri Lankan rupees when they were expelled from LTTE areas.[58]
Further information: Expulsion of Muslims from Jaffna
·                    October 2: Vahalkada, Ampara: LTTE cadres shot dead seven Sinhalese.[7]
·                    October 11: Arugambay, Ampara: LTTE cadres shot dead nine Muslims.[7]
·                    October 23: Thanthirimalai, Anuradhapura: LTTE cadres killed eight Sinhalese and two home guards.[7]
·                    November 1: Halambawewa, Sinhapura, Weli Oya: LTTE cadres attacked the village and killed ten Sinhalese.[7]
1991
·                    January 23: Bogamuyaya Maha Oya, Ampara: LTTE cadres hacked to death 25 Sinhalese villagers and injured nine others, four subsequently succumbed to their injuries.[7]
·                    March 2: At least 19 people, including Sri Lanka’s Deputy Defence Minister, Ranjan Wijeratnekilled in an LTTE car bomb explosion in Colombo. A further 73 people injured.[32]
·                    March 24: Bogamuyaya, Akkaraipattu: Bomb explosion carried out by LTTE at Fish Market Akkaraipattu, killing nine Muslims and injuring 32 others.[7]
·                    March 31: Irudayapuram Batticaloa: LTTE cadres shot dead eight civilians at the market in the night.[7]
·                    April 3: Keviliya, Foul Point, Trincomalee: LTTE cadres in two boats surrounded several boats and opened fire at the fishermen. Ten dead bodies and eleven injured were found. Sixteen were missing. The missing persons were either taken away or drowned after being shot.[7]
·                    April 14: Ethimalai, Monaragala: LTTE cadres hacked to death 17 Sinhalese villagers and injured another.[7]
·                    April 20: Niyadella, Okkampitiya, Moneragala: LTTE cadres attacked the village and hacked and shot to death 21 men, women and children.[7]
·                    May 19: Erakkamam, Ampara LTTE cadres attacked five Muslims and two Sinhalese persons, whilst they were returning from the paddy-field, killing six persons and injuring one.[7]
·                    May 21: LTTE suicide bomber Thenmuli Rajaratnam assassinated former Indian prime ministerRajiv Gandhi while the latter was campaigning for a parliamentary candidate in Tamil Nadu, also killing an additional 13 civilians.[6] Following the assassination, seven suspected LTTE activists committed suicide after being surrounded by police.[59] In June 2006, the LTTE issued a formal apology for this action. However, the Indian government quickly responded saying forgiving Tamil Tigers for the 1991 killing of former prime minister Rajiv Gandhi would amount to endorsing their ideology of terror.[60]
·                    May 21: Sriperumbudur, Description: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg/22px-Flag_of_India.svg.pngIndia: An LTTE suicide bomber kills former Indian Prime Minister and Indian Opposition Leader Rajiv Gandhi and 14 others.[61]
·                    May 20: Malwatta, Sammanthurai, Ampara: LTTE cadres fired on a group of Muslims who were returning from the paddy-field in a tractor; nine Muslims were killed and two injured.[7]
·                    June: Colombo: 12 killed and 85 civilians injured after a suicide bombing outside the Joint Operations Command (JOC) building on Flower Road, Colombo 7.[62]
·                    June 12: Kokkadicholai, Batticaloa: LTTE Bomb explosion in Manmunai ferry kills ten civilians.[7]
·                    June 24: Weligahakandiya Batticaloa: LTTE cadres abducted and killed eight Sinhalese and injured one Tamil.[7]
·                    June 27: Lahugala, Ampara: LTTE cadres exploded two claymore mines and opened fire at the passengers of a private bus; 16 civilians were killed and eight wounded.[7]
·                    July: The army’s Elephant Pass base, which controls access to the Jaffna peninsula, is surrounded by 5,000 LTTE cadres. More than two thousand died on both sides in the month-long siege, before 10,000 government troops arrived to relieve the base.[63]
·                    July 6: Pudur, Jaffna: LTTE cadres cut and killed nine Muslims and moved towards the Mahaweli river bank and cut to death another eight persons, injuring four others. One of the injured succumbed to his injuries. Total killed: 16 Muslims and two Sinhalese.[7]
·                    July 6: Karapola, Manampitiya, Polonnaruwa: Nine Sinhala fishermen were abducted by LTTE cadres and killed.[7]
·                    August 8: Sammanthurai, Batticaloa: Six Muslims farmers killed by LTTE cadres.[7]
·                    September 19: Palliyagodella, Polonnaruwa: LTTE cadres attacked a Muslim village, killing 13 Muslims and injuring six others.[7]
·                    October 24: Iqbal Nagar: LTTE cadres who were in ambush, fired at a civilian van killing three Tamils and three Muslims.[7]
1992
·                    January 26: Between Arantalawa and Borapola LTTE mine explosion killed nine civilians in a bus.[7]
·                    April 10: Ampara Town: A LTTE bomb exploded in a bus causing the death of 25 civilians and injuring 33 civilians. One policeman was also killed and two army personnel were wounded.[7]
·                    April 10: Maharagama: A LTTE car bomb exploded, causing the death of eight civilians; one policeman and 23 civilians were injured.[7]
·                    April 29: LTTE cadres kill 69 Muslim civilians including 5 infants. Reprisal attacks by Muslimcivilians and homeguards results in the death of 49 Tamil men.[64]
·                    April 29: Alinchipothana, Polonnaruwa: LTTE cadres attacked the Alinchipothana village, killing 56 Muslims and injuring 15.[65]
·                    June 2: 209th Mile Post Ampara: A group of LTTE cadres stopped a bus opened fire, killing 14 civilians, one policeman, and injuring two civilians and one policeman.[7]
·                    July 6: Parayankaulam, Vavuniya: LTTE cadres publicly shot dead ten Tamil lorry drivers and a woman, alleging that they had passed information to the security forces.[7]
·                    July 15: Kirankulam, Batticaloa: LTTE cadres attacked a civilian bus proceeding from Kathankudy towards Kalmunai, killing 19 Muslims and injuring seven Muslims.[7]
·                    July 21: Parangiyamadu, Batticaloa: LTTE cadres stopped a train, ordered the passengers to get down and opened fire at the Muslim passengers: seven Muslims were killed and four Muslims were injured.[7]
·                    August 30: Trincomalee Town: A LTTE bomb planted in a private bus at the bus-stand exploded, killing nine civilians and injuring 34 (including four soldiers, two reserve policemen).[7]
·                    September 1: Saindamaradu, Kalmunai: A LTTE bomb fixed to a push-cycle carrying an ice-cream container, exploded at the market, killing 22 Muslims and injuring 67 others.[7]
·                    September 10: Kiliveddi Point, Trincomalee: LTTE operatives blasted a ferry across Allai Tank and killed 22 soldiers and seven civilians, and injured one soldier and two civilians.[7]
·                    October 1: Konwewa Weli Oya: LTTE cadres fired and threw grenades at villagers, killing 15 civilians and injuring nine others.[7]
·                    October 15: Palliyagodella Polonnaruwa: LTTE cadres attacked a Muslim village and shot and hacked to death 182 civilians (171 of them were Muslims), twelve policemen and eight soldiers; 83 others were injured.[7][8]
Further information: Palliyagodella massacre
·                    November 16: An anti-rebel website claimed that the Sri Lanka Navy Commander Vice AdmiralClancy Fernando and four others are killed by LTTE suicide bomber.[66]
1993
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
May 1
Description: Sri LankaAssassination of Ranasinghe Premadasa: Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa killed in LTTE suicide bomb attack at a May Day Rally.
1
?
?
1
July 25
Janakapura Village massacre:The LTTE raids a Sinhalese village and kills nine civilians by means of stabbing, shooting and blowing up with grenades.
9
November 10
Attack on Pooneryn army camp: Eight officers and 233 soldiers were declared killed in action in LTTE’s attack on thePooneryn defences. The LTTE also executed 200 soldiers captured during this attack on the Pooneryn army camp.
241
1994
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
January 19
Rambewa bus bombing: A LTTE bomb exploded in a private bus carrying civilians from Sripura to Anuradhapura, causing the death of ten Sinhalese civilians and injuring 51.
10
10
March 16
Kudiramalai Fishing boats Attack: LTTE cadres attacked about ten fishing boats, causing the death of 17 fishermen and injuring three; five fishermen were reported missing.
17
October 24
Assassination of Gamini Dissanayake: Sri Lankan presidential candidate and opposition leader Gamini Dissanayake is killed by an LTTE suicide bomber who explodes herself at a campaign rally in Colombo. At least 50 others were killed in the blast and a further 75 were seriously hurt.
≈50
≈50
1995
·                    May 25: During the Kallarawa massacre 42 civilians including six children are killed by the LTTE in an attack on the Kallarawa fishing village.[70]
·                    May 25: LTTE cadres attack a fishing village in Kallarawa, and hack and shot to death 42 civilians (22 males, twelve females and eight children).[71][72][73]
Further information: Kallarawa massacre
·                    August 7: Colombo: An LTTE suicide bomber explodes a suicide rickshaw killing 22 civilians.[66]
·                    October 20: Kolonnawa, Colombo: LTTE attacked the oil storage complexes at Kolonnawa and Orugodawatta. At least three suicide bombers fought their way into the tanks and blew themselves up destroying the tanks. LTTE lost four cadres in the action while killing 22 security personnel and destroyingdieselkeroseneaviation fuel and crude oil worth over US $10 million.[74]
·                    October 21: Mangalagama: LTTE cadres kill 16 civilians.[71]
·                    October 25: Panama: LTTE cadres kill twelve Sinhala farmers.[72][73]
·                    November 11: Colombo: A LTTE suicide bomber causes an explosion near the Slave Island railway station resulting in the death of 15 children and two soldiers.[66]
·                    November 24: Colombo: An attack by two LTTE female suicide bombers on the Sri Lanka ArmyHeadquarters results in the death of 16 people.[66]
·                    December 11: Colombo: Two LTTE suicide bombers blow themselves up at the Army Headquarters, resulting in the deaths of 15 civilians and three soldiers.[66]
·                    December 23: The LTTE attacked an army detachment in Batticaloa district, killing 32 troops. Military sources reported that more than 60 rebels were killed.[75]
1996
·                    January 31: An attack by the LTTE on the Colombo Central Bank killed 90 and injured a further 1,400 civilians, damaging other buildings in the process. It was the most deadly LTTE attack on a civilian target in the history of the group’s operations.[6]
·                    January 31: Bombing of Sri Lanka’s Central Bank resulting in 91 civilian deaths.[6]
·                    March 19: 29 Tamil civilians killed by LTTE, as they were accused of being traitors and giving information to Security Forces.[71]
·                    June 11: Lunuoya LTTE kills 14 civilians. According to Amnesty International, this attack was reportedly led by an LTTE member whose family had been killed in communal violence, after the LTTE attacked a police post. The main target of this appears to have been the family of those thought to have been responsible for the killing of this LTTE member’s family.[71]
·                    July 4: Jaffna: An attack by an LTTE suicide bomber on a Sri Lankan minister results in the death of 25 people.[66][76]
·                    July 18: The LTTE overruns the Sri Lanka Army camp at Mullaitivu. The number of killed in action and missing in action Sri Lankan soldiers from this attack was over 1200.[77] The LTTE appear to have burnt alive hundreds of Sri Lankan soldiers who had surrendered during the attack on the Mullaitivu army camp.[78]
·                    July 24: The LTTE bombs a passenger train killing 70 civilians.[6]
·                    July 24: Dehiwala train bombing where the LTTE exploded 4 bombs on Colombo-Alutgama train at Dehiwala killing between 60[79] and 70 civilians.[6] The technique of simultaneously exploding multiple bombs in several carriages was used during this attack.[79]
1997
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
February 10
Oddaimvadi Village attack:The Muslim village of Oddaimavadi, Batticaloa was attacked by a group LTTE terrorists, who shot 5 civilians to death and wounded 3 others.
5
5
May 12
Morawewa Village attack:The village and police station of Morawewa, Trincomalee was attacked by LTTE terrorists who butchered 5 civilians.
5
July 2
Erakkandy Village Massacre:the Muslim village of Erakkandy, Trincomalee was stormed by a group of over 100 LTTE terrorists wielding sharp weapons, clubs and firearms who butchered 34 civilians.
34
34
October 15
1997 Colombo World Trade Centre Bombing: An LTTE bomb exploded at the Colombo World Trade Centre, killing 13 and injuring hundreds.
13
1998
·                    January 25: Four likely members of the Black Tiger squad drove an explosives-laden truck into theTemple of the Tooth in Kandy, a major Buddhist shrine, killing seven and injuring 25. The attack took place just days before foreign dignitaries were expected to attend celebrations of the fiftieth anniversary of Sri Lankan independence at the temple.[6]
·                    January 25: Four members of the Black Tiger squad drive an explosives-laden truck into a major Buddhist shrine, killing seven and injuring 25.[6] The Maligawa is one of the most sacred Buddhist shrines in the world, and is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[66]
·                    March 5: LTTE is blamed for two bomb explosions aboard buses in Colombo killing thirty-two civilians and injuring 252 others.[6]
·                    May 14: A member of the Black Tiger squad jumped in front of a vehicle carrying Sri LankanBrigadier Larry Wijeratne and detonated explosives, killing the general and two guards. Wijeratne was the commander of Sri Lankan forces in the Point Pedro area of the Jaffna peninsula in the Tamil-inhabited north of the country. Press reports described the assassination as a “serious blow” to the government’s efforts in the area.
·                    August 29: The LTTE shoot down a AN-24 Lionair Flight 602 with 55 passengers (including 48 Tamils) and crew while it was flying over LTTE held territory. Everyone onboard is killed.[82][83]
·                    September: In a massive LTTE offensive 1,500 soldiers are killed (Battle of Kilinochchi), 3,000 wounded and 500 are missing.[84]
1999
·                    June 2: Eleven Sinhalese civilians were murdered at Inginiyagala.[85]
·                    July 29: An LTTE suicide bomber killed Sri Lankan Tamil MP Dr.Neelan Thiruchelvam along with two others. Six civilians were injured. At the time of his death Dr.Neelan Thiruchelvam was working on a constitutional package aimed at ending the decades long ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka.[86]
·                    September 18: LTTE cadres massacre at least 50 Sinhalese civilians in three villages in Ampara District.[13][87][88][89]
Further information: Gonagala massacre
·                    November 1: An LTTE attack on an army camp at Oddusuddan results in an SLA defeat with 800 soldiers killed or missing and another 1,200 deserted (See Oddusuddan offensive).[84]
·                    December 11 – January 2, 2000: 212 soldiers are killed in heavy fighting. Also another 37 are missing and 2,118 are wounded.[84]
·                    December 18: A LTTE suicide bomber kills 23 civilians in attempt to kill Sri Lankan president Kumaratunga at a pre-election rally.[6][90]
·                    December 18: In Colombo LTTE suicide bomber Skandaraja Ashoka kills eleven people and retired Sri Lanka Army Major General Lucky Algama.[66]
2000
·                    January 5: An LTTE suicide bomber blows herself up outside the office of the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka killing 13 civilians and three police officers.[66][90]
·                    January 7: An LTTE suicide bomber kills Sri Lankan Industrial Minister C.V. Gunaratne and 24 civilians.[66][91]
·                    January 27: LTTE bomb a post office killing eleven and injuring 70.[92][93]
·                    March 11: 14 civilians and six police die when four LTTE suicide bombers attempt to assassinate the defence minister. 46 others are injured[66][92]
·                    April 22: The LTTE overrun the most important military base in the Northern province, theElephant Pass base (See Second Battle of Elephant Pass ).[94]
·                    May 18: An LTTE bomber killed 23 and injured 70 at a Buddhist temple in Batticaloa during celebrations of the Vesak holiday.[95]
·                    May 17: The LTTE detonate a bomb hidden inside an ice-cream box on a bicycle during celebrations to mark the holiest day of the Buddhist calendar, Vesak, killing over 20 people and injuring 75.[96]
·                    June 26: LTTE suicide boats sink a chartered private ship M.V. Uhana. Five civilian crew and three navy personnel die.[66]
·                    September 15: An anti-rebel website claimed that in Colombo a suicide bomber explodes in front of the main government hospital in Colombo resulting in seven civilian deaths. 28 civilians are injured.[66]
·                    October 3: An anti-rebel website claimed that the an LTTE bomb kills parliamentary candidateMohammed Baithullah and more than twenty others in Muttur. At least 49 others were injured.[97]
·                    October 5: An anti-rebel website claimed that in Medawacchchiya, Anuradhapura an attack by an LTTE suicide bomber on the Health and Indigenous Medicine Deputy Minister Tissa Karaliyadda results in the death of seven civilians and injuries to 40 civilians.[97]
2001
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
July 24
Bandaranaike Airport attack:An LTTE 14-man suicide squad attacked a Sri Lanka Air Forcebase and the adjoiningBandaranaike International Airport. They destroyed many aircraft, crippling the country’s economy and reducing tourism.
7
14
21
2005
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
August 12
Assassination of Lakshman Kadirgamar: Lakshman Kadirgamar, the foreign minister of Sri Lanka and an ethnic Tamil was shot by an alleged LTTE sniper.
1
1
2006
·                    January 7: A suspected LTTE fishing boat loaded with explosives detonates and destroys a Sri Lankan navy boat as it leaves the port of Trincomalee, killing 13 sailors.[100]
·                    March 1: Five civilians die in suspected LTTE mine explosion.[101]
·                    April 23: The LTTE kill six Sinhalese civilians including two 15 year old children in the village of Gomarankadawala in the Trincomalee district.[102]
Further information: Gomarankadawala massacre
·                    April 25: A suicide bomber, believed to belong to the LTTE, attempts to kill Lieutenant GeneralSarath Fonseka, seriously injuring him while killing eight others and injuring thirty more. The explosives were disguised as the late stages of pregnancy, and the bomber was originally believed to be pregnant, although subsequent medical tests have been inconclusive.[103]
·                    May 11: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Sea Tigers attacks and sink one Sri Lanka Navyvessel while seriously damaging another. The attack is ruled as a grave violation of the Cease Fire Agreement by the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission. In response, LTTE threathened the truce monitors not to be aboard naval vessels.[104] 18 sailors perish on the Sri Lankan patrolboat, and an unknown number of Sea Tiger cadres also die in the attack.[105] The fact that the lives of two Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission monitors on board these ships were endangered by this attack, triggered the European Union decision to ban the LTTE.[106]
·                    May 27: The award-winning author Nihal de Silva and seven Sri Lankan tourists were killed by a supposed LTTE land mine in Wilpattu National Park. The explosion took place near Tamil held territory in the northern part of the country. Before a 2002 cease fire agreement, rebels used the park as a hiding place. It is unclear whether the mine was planted before or after the cease fire agreement.[107]
·                    May 29: Thirteen farm workers were cut and shot in a village around Welikanda in Plonnaruwa. The government suspected the LTTE were responsible, while the LTTE responded that they had no involvement and that they were falsely implicated. Furthermore, the LTTE condemned this attack.[108][109]
·                    May 30: An anti-rebel website claimed that the LTTE cadres kill twelve Sinhalese villagers working at an irrigation canal construction site in Omadiyamadu, close to the uncleared areas of Welikanda in Polonnaruwa district.[110]
·                    June 15: The LTTE blow up a civilian bus killing 68, including ten children and three pregnant women. Approximately 60 more are injured.
·                    June 15: The LTTE bombs a bus carrying 140 civilians in Kebithigollewa, in northeastern Sri Lanka. The blast results in the death of 68 civilians including 15 school children, and injurers 78 others. It was caused by two claymore mines placed side by side on the bus by LTTE cadres, which spraying the packed bus with millions of ball bearings upon manual detonation.[111]
Further information: Kebithigollewa massacre
·                    June 26: The third highest ranking Sri Lankan military officer, Major General Parami Kulatungawas wounded in an attack by LTTE and died after being taken to the hospital. Two other military escorts and a passerby were also killed.[112]
·                    September 18: LTTE cadres massacre ten Muslims at Pothuwil in the Eastern province. The sole survivor of the attack confirms it was carried out by LTTE cadres.[113]
Further information: Pottuvil massacre
·                    October 16: In the deadliest ever suicide attack by the LTTE in Sri Lanka, a suicide bomber in a truck kills 103 sailors on buses going or returning from leave at a transit point and wounds over 150 other sailors. Several civilians may also have died.[114]
·                    October 16: In the deadliest suicide attack in Sri Lanka to date, a suicide bomber in a truck kills 103 Sri Lanka Navy sailors on buses going or returning from leave at a transit point and wounds over 150 other sailors. Several civilians may also have died.[115]
Further information: 2006 Digampathana truck bombing
·                    December 1: An LTTE suicide bomber triggers the explosives packed into a vehicle in Colombo as a five car convoy carrying Sri Lankan Defense Secretary Gotabaya Rajapakse passes by, in an attempt to assassinate him. Secretary Rajapakse escapes unharmed, although two people are killed and 14 others are wounded, mostly civilians who were passing by the site.[116]
2007
·                    January 5: Nittambuwa: The LTTE are the only suspects in bomb blast on a city bus carrying more than 80 civilians. The resulting explosion kills six civilians and wounds 63, ten of them seriously. The bus was bombed during the evening rush-hour near Nittambuwa town, 40 km (25 miles) north-east ofColombo.[117][118] It followed a threat issued by the LTTE that they will carry out revenge attacks for air raids by the Sri Lanka Air Force.[119][120][121]
Further information: 2007 Sri Lankan bus bombs
·                    January 6: Peraliya: A suspected LTTE suicide bomber detonates herself inside aColomboMatara passenger bus. 16 civilians are killed and more than 50 are injured.[122][123] These attacks on buses appear to be a fulfillment of threats made by the LTTE.[119][124]
Further information: 2007 Sri Lankan bus bombs
·                    February 7: Batticaloa: Rev. Selliah Parameswaran Kurukkal, the head Priest of the Santhiveli Pilleyar Kovil and a father of three, who blessed President Mahinda Rajapaksa during the President’s visit to Vakarai four days previously, is forcibly dragged out of his residence and shot dead by gunmen from theLTTE.[125][126][127][128] The gunmen had mentioned that they were from the LTTE and they needed to question the Poosari in connection with the garlanding of the President.[129][130] It is also suggested he had been targeted because he had co-operated with the security forces in order to help civilians flee the fighting around Vakarai.[131]
·                    March 9: Puttlam: Eight people who entered the Wilpattu National Park to investigate the grievances of the local population over wild elephant attacks, including the Sri Lanka Army Area Commander, the head Park Warden and three park rangers, are ambushed and massacred by the LTTE.[132]
·                    March 26: The LTTE mount their first air strike, bombing a government-controlled military airbase. The attack leaves three killed and 19 wounded.[133]
·                    March 29: Tamil NaduDescription: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg/22px-Flag_of_India.svg.pngIndia: LTTE cadres kill five Indian fisherman off the coast of Tamil Nadu and kidnap twelve others. An anonymous caller initially attempts to blame the incidents on the Sri Lanka Navy.[134]
·                    April 1: Eravur, Batticaloa: LTTE cadres massacre six aid workers who were constructing a housing scheme named “Village of Hope” for Tamil children orphaned by the 2004 Asian Tsunami. Another three aid workers suffer serious gunshot injuries following the shooting at close range which took place at 8.15 pm local time.[135][136][137][138]
·                    April 2: Ampara: The LTTE bomb a civilian bus in eastern Sri Lanka, killing at least 16 civilians, and wounding 25 others. Among the dead are eleven women, three men and two boys.[139][140][141]Video of the blast scene
·                    April 5: Polonnaruwa: In the third attack on civilians in a week, LTTE cadres shoot dead four Sinhalese farmers.[142]
·                    April 7: Piramanalankulam, Vavunia: In the second such incident in five days, the LTTE bomb a civilian bus traveling along the Vavuniya–Mannar main road at 7:30 am, killing eight and wounding a further 26 people.[143][144] Video of the blast scene
·                    April 12: Avarantalawa, Vavuniya: Suspected LTTE raid a village at around 4:45 pm (local time) and shoot dead seven people, of six women and one man, on the eve of the traditional New Year.[145][146]
·                    April 23: Vavunia: The Sri Lankan Defence Ministry claimed that the LTTE cadres A bomb set off by rips through a civilian bus traveling near the town of Vavuniya killing five passengers and wounding 35.[147][148]
·                    April 24: The LTTE mount a second air strike on Palaly, the main government-controlled military airbase in Northern Jaffna.[149]
·                    April 29: Two fuel facilities were bombed by the LTTE during an air raid which they said was in response to an army strike on their positions.[150]
·                    May 24: Colombo: The Sri Lankan Army claimed that it suspects Tamil Tigers exploded an IEDfixed on motorbike in Colombo targeting a bus transporting Sri Lankan Army personal killing one soldier and wounding six people, including three civilians.[151][152][153] Video of the blast scene
·                    May 27: Thirukkovil: The Sri Lankan Military said Tamil Tiger rebels set off a road side bomb blast blew up a truck, killing the three civilians.[154][155][156][157]
·                    May 28: Rathmalana: The Sri Lankan Military and a doctor claimed that the Tamil Tigers detonated a bomb targeting a truck carrying Sri Lanka Police Special Task Force (STF) personnel at Belk Kade junction, in Rathmalana during the evening, killing seven civilians and injureding more than 39 people, including seven STF personal. Amongst dead were one pregnant mother.[158][159][160][161]
·                    July 16: Trincomalee: Suspected Tamil Tigers gunned down Eastern province chief secretary Herath Abeyweera at around 5:30 p.m. local time (12.00 GMT).[162][163]
·                    August 20: Vavuniya: Sri Lanka military claimed that Tamil Tiger rebels in a jeep opened fire on the police checkpoint in Vavuniya district, killing four home guards including three female guards and one civilian.[164][165][166]
·                    September 22: Trincomalee: The Sri Lankan military claimed that suspected Tamil Tigers detonates a mine targeting a bus carrying civilians in Trincomalee district killing the driver of it and wounding two others.[167][168][169]
·                    September 27: Jaffna: At least two civilians were killed and about fifteen were injured, including two policemen when LTTE rebels had triggered a road side bomb targeting a police road patrol vehicle at Chunnakam, Jaffna market area around 10.30 a.m. local time (0500 GMT).[170][171][172]
·                    October 22: LTTE attacked Anuradapura Airbase destroying more than 20 military aircrafts (SeeRaid on Anuradhapura Air Force Base).
·                    November 26: Group of LTTE cadres shot and killed four Sinhalese farmers, including one woman, at Mahawilachchiya, Anuradhapura. For details look Mahawilachchiya massacre[citation needed]
·                    November 28: Colombo: A suspected LTTE cadre blows herself up in front of the office ofDouglas Devananda, the leader of the Eelam People’s Democratic Party in an attempt to assassinate him. Devanda escapes unhurt, but his personal secretary is killed and two of his security personnel are seriously injured.[173]
·                    November 28: Colombo: An LTTE parcel bomb blows up a Department Store in Colombo killing 20 civilians. Amnesty International have asked the LTTE to comply with international law and halt such attacks.[174]
2008
·                    January 1: Colombo: A former minister and a Member of Parliament belonging to UNP forColombo District T. Maheswaran was shot by a gunman while attending the New Year prayers at Kotahena, Sivam Kovil around 10:35 local time (05:05 GMT) and later succumbed to his injuries at the Colombo General Hospital along with one Hindu pilgrim who was too attending to the prayers.[175][176][177] UNP parliamentarians Johnston Fernando and Dayasiri Jayasekara accused the current government as responsible by saying that T. Maheswaran’s plan to reveal Jaffna situation has led to his murder. The government has denied any responsibility.[178] However, The Council on Foreign Relations claimed that LTTE was suspected.[179] To the accusation that Douglas Devananda a cabinet minister and leader of the EPDP political party was involved in his murder and had previously threatened T. Maheswaran, Douglas had denied any responsibility.[180] Later the government of Sri Lanka claimed that the suspected gunmen worked for the state. The suspected gunman was a security guard for Minister Douglas Devananda and for the victim – Maheswaran.[181]
·                    January 2: Colombo: A bomb attack outside the Nipon Hotel in the Slave Island district, aimed at a Sri Lankan Army bus, killed at least four people, including a soldier and three civilians, and injured 28 others, Sri Lankan defense and hospital officials said. The Defense Ministry blamed the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam for the attack.[182]
·                    January 8: Ja-Ela: A non-cabinet Minister of Nation Building and a Member of Parliament of Sri LankaD. M. Dassanayake died of injuries sustained in a roadside bomb attack in Ja-Ela, twelve miles (19 km) north of Colombo along with one of his body guard. The attack injured ten others. LTTE blamed for this assassination.[179][183]
·                    January 16: Buttala: A roadside bomb targeting a passenger bus packed with civilians, killing 27 civilians including three schoolchildren and wounding 67 others, 240 km (150 miles) south-east of the capital, Colombo. This attack took place on the same day that a ceasefire ended between the Tamil Tigers and the government of Sri Lanka. Also, after the blast, gunmen had started shooting passengers as they tried to flee. According to the Sri Lankan Defence Ministry, the bus was hit by a powerful Claymore-type mine which was packed with explosives and ball-bearings. The Sri Lankan Defence Ministry blames the LTTE.[184][185][186][187][188][189]
·                    February 2: Dambulla: A bomb blast was accord on a passenger bus, 150 kilometres (93 miles) north of the island’s capital killing 20 people and injuring 50 more. The Sri Lankan government has blamed the LTTE for this attack.[190]
·                    February 3: Colombo:A suicide bomber exploded herself at on broad a train at the main railway station in Colombo Fort, killing eleven people and wounding 97 others.[191] Killed in the incident where seven school children of the baseball team of D. S. Senanayake College and their coach.[192][193]
Further information: 2008 Fort Railway Station Bombing
·                    February 23: Mount Lavinia: A bomb went off in a bus in the suburban town of Mount Lavinia, 10 kilometres (six miles) south of the capital of Colombo, wounding at least 18 people including seven women and an 8-month-old infant. Government blamed on Tamil Tigers for the responsibility.[194][195][196][197]
·                    February 23: Batticaloa: A suspected Tamil Tiger suicide bomber blew himself up in east Sri Lanka on Sunday killing two members of a regional political party.[198][199]
·                    February 29: Colombo: A suicide bomber exploded himself and wounding seven included three policemen and four civilians, when Sri Lanka Police attempt to search his house during a search and cordon operation by police aimed at flushing out Tamil Tiger rebels seeking to mount attacks in the capital.[200][201]
·                    March 2: Vavuniya: A roadside bomb exploded wounding four policemen and six civilians in a northern city of Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan Military blames the LTTE.[202]
·                    March 10: Colombo: A bomb hidden in a roadside flowerpot in Sri Lanka’s capital Monday, killing one person and injuring six others, including four children who were on their way to school. Government blamed on Tamil Tigers for the responsibility.[203][204]
·                    April 6: Colombo: A suicide bomber killed 14 people at an opening ceremony for a marathon Sunday, including a government minister who was nearing the starting line with a flag and a former Olympian. More than 90 others were wounded in the attack.
Further information: 2008 Weliveriya bombing
·                    April 25: Colombo: A parcel bomb explodes inside a bus in the residential suburb of Piliyandala, killing 24 and wounding 52.[205][206]
Further information: 2008 Piliyandala bus bombing
·                    May 16: Colombo: A LTTE suicide bomber on a motorcycle packed with explosives rammed into a bus carrying a police riot squad, killing 13 people which included 11 police personal and 2 civilians, and wounding 95.[207][208]
·                    May 26: Dehiwala: A bomb exploded inside a crowded train in Dehiwala station, killing 8 people and wounding 67.[209] The same place or very close to that place where the LTTE’s Dehiwala train bombing in 1996, which resulted 64 deaths and 400 wounded.[210]
Further information: 2008 Dehiwala train bombing
·                    June 4: Wellawatte: A bomb exploded between the railway tracks hit by packed commuter train at 0710 local time between the Dehiwala and Wellawatte railway stations, was injured at least 24 people. The incident happened after one weeks time in the same area, also the Police said that they have captured the two suspects in the same day.[211]
Further information: 2008 Wellawatte train bombing
·                    June 6:
o                               Moratuwa: A roadside bomb exploded targeting a passenger bus during rush hour, killing 23 civilians and wounding 80 more. The Sri Lankan Government blames the LTTE.[212]
Further information: 2008 Moratuwa bus bombing
o                               Pollgolla, Kandy: A bomb blast occurred on a passenger bus, killing 2 civilians and wounding 20. The Sri Lankan Government blamed the LTTE.[213]
Further information: 2008 Polgolla bus bombing
·                    June 16: Vavuniya: Suspected LTTE suicide bomber on a motorcycle detonated explosives in front of a police office killing 12 policemen including 4 female police constables and wounded 40 others including school children.[214]
2009
Date
Attack
Location
Sinhalese
Tamils
Muslims
Death toll
Sources
February 20
2009 suicide air raid on Colombo: The LTTE launched an unsuccessful kamikaze style suicide attack targeting locations in and around Colombo.
2
4
February 22
Kirimetiya Village massacre:The Sri Lanka Defence Ministry claimed that 10 people were killed by LTTE
10
April 12
Mahagodayaya massacre: 9 people were killed including 2 children
9
9
See also
·                    Sri Lankan Civil War
·                    Suicide bombing in Sri Lanka
·                    Alleged war crimes during the Sri Lankan Civil War
·                    Enforced disappearances in Sri Lanka
·                    Human rights in Sri Lanka
·                    List of assassinations of the Sri Lankan Civil War
·                    List of attacks attributed to Sri Lankan government forces
·                    List of massacres in Sri Lanka
·                    Sri Lanka and state terrorism
References
1.                               ^ Gunaratna, Rohan (2001-11-03). “Intelligence failures exposed by Tamil Tiger airport attack”Jane’s Information Group. Archived from the original on 2007-03-03.http://web.archive.org/web/20070303021604/http://www.janes.com/security/international_security/news/jir/jir010903_1_n.shtml. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
2.                               ^ “Consular Information Sheet – Sri Lanka”Bureau of Consular Affairs (U.S. Department of State). 2007-04-11. http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1025.html. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
3.                               ^ “CRS Report for Congress, Foreign Terrorist Organizations” (PDF). Bureau of Consular Affairs (The Library of Congress). 2004-02-06. http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL32223.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
4.                               a b “Recalling the saddest day in Lankan Police history”Lanka Newspapers. Lanka Newspapers. 2011.http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2011/6/67843.html. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
5.                               a b “Killing of 774 policemen”Rivira. Rivira. 2011. http://www.rivira.lk/2011/06/12/ranabima.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
6.                               a b c d e f g h i j k l “Timeline of the Tamil conflict”BBC News. 2000-09-04.http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/51435.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
  
Antony Loewenstein can be forgiven for sticking strictly to Gordon Weiss’s premises in his review of The Cage (Paradise lost in a secret war, Spectrum, Sept 17-18). In the hands of a reviewer with a deeper knowledge of Sri Lanka, the false and malicious nature of these premises would have been exposed.
Weiss poses as a human-rights advocate but chooses to see the 30-year conflict in Sri Lanka solely through the lens of the Tamil Tigers – the most ruthless terrorist organisation. Where was his concern for the human rights of the majority of Sri Lankans who were brutally terrorised for decades with over 150 suicide bombings killing over 100,000 and maiming thousands more? Where was the concern of the United Nations and Western governments for human rights when, for years, families in Sri Lanka were forced to travel separately for fear of being blown up in trains or buses? Where was their concern when some 300,000 people were herded across the country and used as human shields in the latter stages of the war? 
Isn’t it curious that despite such a catalogue of atrocities their efforts in May 2009 were directed solely to rescuing the Tamil Tiger leaders and military command when their doom appeared inevitable?
Weiss also conveniently swallowed the LTTE propaganda that 40,000 civilians were killed by the Sri Lanka forces. A claim he was forced to retract when pressed for hard evidence at the launch of his book in Melbourne last June.
The Sri Lanka Government was alone in combating the Tamil Tiger menace while the perpetrators who financed this criminal movement with money and arms were sheltered in cocoons of comfort by Western governments. Despite strong evidence of their activities, these governments chose to turn a blind eye to the human rights abuses and terrorist activities committed by a section of their citizens who used the war to ensconce themselves in the greener pastures in the West.
Weiss, and others who share his views, are blissfully ignorant that tensions between the minority Tamils and majority Sinhalese in Sri Lanka stretch back over 2500 years. Soon after Independence in 1948, Tamil agitation, to preserve their privileged status, was for “Fifty-fifty.”  This tumour gradually metastasised to a “Tamil homeland” comprising one-third of Sri Lanka’s land mass and two-thirds of  its coastline for a minority 15 per cent of the people! 
His contention that Tamils were routinely discriminated against and could not use their own language in professional life is preposterous. Tamils have always been represented in professions and senior positions in greater proportion to the size of their population. 
Until 1956, the Tamils and the English-speaking community of Sri Lanka (of which I am one) were in a privileged position. The majority Sinhalese people, almost 80 per cent of the population, were alienated in their own country and subjected to such indignities as having to pay people at the steps of courthouses, post offices and other government offices to have their telegrams and documents translated into English. People were arrested and convicted without the faintest idea of what offence they were deemed to have committed. Entry to public service and professional jobs were restricted to the English-educated. 
What self-respecting democratic government could allow such a situation to persist?
The Sinhala Only Act of 1956 was portrayed as legislation discriminatory of Tamils only. It was not. It was an affirmative action law designed to give the Sinhala people the same opportunities as the minority Tamils, Muslims, and the English-speaking Burghers. I, too, was affected when obliged to comply with its provisions. But now, everyone is compelled to learn the language of the Tamil minority.
Sri Lanka is now breathing the fresh winds of freedom from terror. Paradise has been regained. True, there are curtailments of some civil liberties. One cannot continue to keep all the windows open when those complicit in the pursuit of terror and determined to threaten the sovereignty of a democratically elected government are still on the loose both within and overseas.
The pertinent question now is: Why is Sri Lanka being crucified above the altar of human rights for crushing the evil of terrorism on its shores?

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Asian Tribune: Disturbing Report Of New LTTE Front Group Surfaces In New Jersey

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Asian Tribune: Blake Absolves Rudrakumaran Of His LTTE Ties Despite His Deep Roots To Sri Lanka Terror Outfit

The following article, which appeared in the Asian Tribune in December 2009, lays out New York based Tamil attorney Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran’s unmistakeable ties to the LTTE.

 

Daya Gamage – US National Correspondent Asian Tribune
Washington, D.C. 12 December (Asiantribune.com):

 

Ambassador_Robert_Blake2.jpg

Ambassador Robert Blake

Why should a seasoned diplomat like Robert Blake chose to absolve Sri Lanka-born New York immigration lawyer Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran of his deep rooted ties to Sri Lanka’s Tamil Tiger (LTTE) outfit in replying to a query at his Colombo press briefing on December 9.

 

Couldn’t this former US ambassador to Sri Lanka, former deputy chief of mission to India and currently State Department’s assistant secretary for the South and Central Asian region diplomatically avoided the ‘hostile’ media query.

Why did Mr. Blake go to the extent of saying that he has not committed any crime on the American soil to defend Rudrakumaran’s existence as an advocate for an ‘independent/sovereign state for the Eelam Tamils’ in the northern and eastern region of Sri Lanka.

To absolve him and the U.S. from the ‘questionable’ rapport with Rudrakumaran which Mr. Blake couple of months ago refused to disclose who he met as representatives of the Tamil Diaspora in the U.S. at the State Department in Washington to the Asian Tribune he produced the standard U.S. explanation in Colombo that his country was the first to designate the LTTE as a foreign terrorist organization (FTO) way back in 1997.

Is it that the State Department which assists the White House to formulate America’s foreign policy planks and the USG agency that maintains foreign relations for the administration has a covert policy platform since the annihilation of Prabhakaran’s LTTE in May to help maintain a ‘Sri Lankan pressure movement overseas’ facilitating Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran.

At the conclusion of his three-day official visit to Sri Lanka assistant secretary Robert Blake addressing a media briefing in Colombo December 9 to a media query about Rudrakumaran said:

“I won’t say Rudrakumaran is a well known LTTE activist. He is an advisor on several peace delegations in the LTTE. And to the best of our knowledge he has not committed any crime in the U.S. If people have information to the contrary we welcome that information.”

He Further Said: “In fact, the US took a very strong stand against the LTTE than many other countries in the world. US were the first to designate the LTTE as a FTO way back in 1997. We have taken numerous actions against individuals who were found to be supporting the LTTE in one way or another.”

Following its military defeat the LTTE formed a team under US-based LTTE legal adviser Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran to work on the formation of a Provisional Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam.

The Asian Tribune presents here, to make any ongoing joint SLG and US FBI investigation of Rudrakumaran’s deep rooted connections with the LTTE easier and especially for the information and comprehension of Mr. Blake, the facts it has unearthed about Rudrakumaran’s association with the LTTE.

The facts presented here will inform Mr. Blake whether Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran is ‘just’ an adviser (as he declared in Colombo) or a person (subjected to U.S. federal laws) who provided ‘material support’ to a FTO designated by the U.S.

And, Asian Tribune expects Mr. Blake to give a reasonable explanation to what we produce here about Mr. Rudrakumaran as he has made a ‘diplomatic announcement’ on be half of the State Department and the USG describing Rudrakumaran’s political activities.

An explanation is sought from Assistant Secretary Robert Blake because Asian Tribune chose to connect Mr. Rudrakumaran’s activities to U.S. federal laws that prohibit certain actions that may construe as providing material support to a FTO.

In that endeavor Mr. Blake is able to help a process of bringing Sri Lanka and the United States to a better understanding while erasing misunderstandings and misconceptions between the two nations, an endorsement of the sentiments expressed by Kerry-Lugar Senate Foreign Relations Committee report of December 07, 2009.

Rudrakumaran’s Established Connections to LTTE

Did Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran at any stage made himself available to the Tamil Tigers, a designated FTO in the United States, where he worked under the LTTE’s direction or control or organized, managed, supervised or otherwise directed the operation of the LTTE?

Does Rudrakumaran’s conduct in promoting, aiding and abetting the LTTE absolve him from criminal conduct as an individual who acted entirely independently of the LTTE to advance its goals or objectives?

Can Rudrakumaran’s advocacy of the goals and objectives of the LTTE, an FTO in the U.S. under federal statutes, and making him available to the LTTE consider a non-criminal behavior which is protected by the First Amendment as long as he engaged in advocacy entirely independent of the foreign terrorist organization, in this case the LTTE?

Rudrakumaran, a U.S. citizen who is bound by the United States laws was not acting entirely independent of the LTTE, which is a designated FTO under U.S. federal laws, to advance its goals or objectives thus consolidating that he is an effective part of Sri Lanka’s separatist outfit.

Addressing a Tamil Diaspora rally in the vicinity of the United Nations in New York on 08 December 2008 Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran declared:

“Through our Awareness rallies with Tamil Eelam flags and pictures of the Tamil national leader, Hon. Vellupillai Pirabaharan, we have demonstrated to the GoSL that their zeal to quell the Tamils’ thirst for the realization of the right to self-determination or their dream of wiping out the LTTE will be a futile one. The more they bomb, the more the Tamil Diaspora is resolved to protect their brethren. The more they shell, the more the Tamils are resolved to realize their right of self-determination. The more they brag about their military adventurism, the more the Tamil people rally under the leadership of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.”

Rudrakumaran in his media statement refers to the defeat of the LTTE, in his opinion was spear-heading a legitimate campaign of the Tamils to realize their right to self-determination, in this manner:

(Begin Quote) “The legitimate campaign of the Tamils to realize their right to self-determination has been brutally crushed through military aggression, which has been in violation of humanitarian laws and all civilized norms. People all over the world are shocked and deeply saddened by the massacres of Tamils in the Vanni(End Quote)

He says that the transitional government at this moment was imperative at a time of the “exclusion of its political leaders is achieved’ by the Government of Sri Lanka.
Who are these political leaders being excluded: Obviously Prabhakaran and his top leaders who constituted the supreme leadership of the LTTE which the United States designated a FTO under several federal laws. Here is the full quote:

“We, the people of Tamil Eelam and its Diaspora, therefore, firmly believe that the formation of a Provisional Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam is imperative. It is a well accepted proposition in international law that the legal claim to establish a government in exile arises the more readily when the exclusion of its political leaders is achieved through acts contrary to principles of ius cogens, such as the unlawful use of force, abductions with a view to torture, genocide, war crimes, detention in internment camps or “open prisons,” the rape of women and the kidnapping of children.”

Rudrakumaran Defending Arms Procurements

State Department and the U.S. Justice Department should be aware, if they have done their research and investigation, that Rudrakumaran, in a widely read article for the benefit of the Tamil Diaspora in North America carried in TamilCanadian web site on July 10, 2006, defended arms procurement of Sri Lanka’s separatist Tamil Tigers saying that since it is a liberation movement it has the right to import arms.

About a month after Rudrakumaran’s ‘advocacy piece’ appeared in TamilCanadian, FBI arrested 13 Sri Lankan ethnic Tamils, domiciled in Canada and the United States, conspiring to acquire sophisticated military hardware for the LTTE, and the FBI said in its 34-page complaint unsealed on August 21, 2006 in US District Court in Brooklyn, New York that its investigations have discovered that the Tamil Tigers wanted radio towers, missile-launchers, AK-47s, night vision goggles- even software to design submarines and warships.

Whether advocating and justifying arms procurement to a movement designated a terrorist organization by the United States government amount to “providing material support” is another question before the U.S. Justice Department when the ‘advocate’ himself a U.S. citizen who has established deep root connections to the LTTE.

It is left for the U.S. authorities to determine whether the “advocacy” by a U.S. citizen promoting the procurement of military hardware for a U.S. designated FTO falls within the jurisdiction of the First Amendment Right of freedom of speech.

In a landmark case, a New York-based civil rights lawyer, an American citizen, Lynne F. Stewart was convicted for providing material support to an Egyptian terrorist organization designated by the United States Government a “Foreign Terrorist Organization” and was sentenced to 28 months in prison by a U.S. District Court in New York.

Keeping the above U.S. federal law in mind one could derive at a reasonable conclusion what Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran endeavors to communicate in the following paragraph taken out from his submission to TamilCanadian appeared in its web site on July 10, 2006:

(Begin Quote) “In 2003, three separate incidents at sea took 26 LTTE members. The Sri Lanka Navy sank an LTTE merchant ship in international waters. Even in spite of that, the LTTE has shown great restraint in their actions. The government has justified its action by claiming that the LTTE ships were carrying arms.

Arguendo, the LTTE ships were getting arms, it does not entitle the GOSL to attack those ships.

“The relevant language of the Ceasefire Agreement (CFA) states in Section 1.2:

Neither Party shall engage in any offensive military operation. This requires the total cessation of all military actions and includes, but not limited to, such acts as:

(a) The firing of direct and indirect weapons, armed raids, ambushes, assassinations, abductions, destruction of civilian or military property, sabotage, suicide missions and activities by deep penetration units;

“Thus, the importation of weapons and ammunition can only be considered proscribed if such action is specifically included in the above paragraphs. Clearly the importation of weapons and ammunition is not an offensive military operation and clearly there is no prohibition in the CFA.

“The fact that a prohibition on rearmament is not included in the CFA is not inconsistent with general state practice. A review ceasefire agreements and subsequent peace agreements indicates that prohibitions on rearmament are generally included in the final peace agreements as part of a comprehensive program on demobilization, disarmament, and decommissioning of weapons.

“Moreover, the LTTE is a national liberation movement. Thus, it can be argued under U.N. General Assembly Resolutions 3034 and 3314 that the LTTE has a right to import arms for the realization of the right to self-determination. Also under the international law concept of self-defense and self-help, the LTTE can import arms.” (End Quote)

Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran cites Resolutions 3034 and 3314 adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in support of his argument:

Resolution 3034 measures “to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms, and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence.”

Rudrakumaran based his above argument on section 3 of the resolution which states: “Reaffirms the inalienable right to self-determination and independence of all peoples under colonial and racist regimes and other forms of alien domination and uphold the legitimacy of their struggle, in particular the struggle of national liberation movements, in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter and the relevant resolutions of the organs of the United nations.”

Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran’s defense of the LTTE that it has the right to procure and import military hardware for its use in Sri Lanka because it is a liberation movement and on the strength of being a liberation movement it has the right to do so. Now the issue here is whether the LTTE was designated by the United States as a liberation organization or a Foreign Terrorist Organization, and if the latter is true isn’t Rudrakumaran, a U.S. citizen, in violation of several federal statutes that prohibit ‘material support’ to an FTO.

In advocating the LTTE’s right to procure and import arms to Sri Lanka in his well read July 10, 2006 article carried in TamilCanadian does Rudrakumaran justify the procurement and smuggling of heavy military hardware and communication equipment for the use by the LTTE by Selvarasa Pathmanathan now in Sri Lankan custody. Do Rudrakumaran’s pronouncements in TamilCanadian violate certain U.S. federal laws and statutes that prohibit ‘material support’ to designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations one of which is Sri Lanka’s LTTE or Tamil Tigers?

August 12 (2009) Bangladeshi American conviction Under ‘Material Support’ law

A federal jury has found Ehsanul Islam Sadequee, 23, a Bangladesh American residing in Roswell, Georgia August 12 (2009), guilty on all four counts of an indictment charging him with supporting terrorists and a foreign terrorist organization, after a trial that lasted seven days. The jury deliberated for approximately five hours before reaching the guilty verdicts. U.S. District Judge William S. Duffey, Jr. presided over the trial.

Ehsanul Islam Sadequee was convicted of supporting terrorists and a foreign terrorist organization. Sadequee was convicted of (1) conspiring to provide material support to terrorists; (2) attempting to provide and providing material support to terrorists; (3) conspiring to provide material support to Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LET), a designated foreign terrorist organization; and (4) attempting to provide material support to LET.

Atlanta FBI Special Agent in Charge Gregory Jones said, “The FBI continues to investigate a growing number of cases involving U.S. citizens providing material support to terrorists. However, as we move further away from the tragic events of September 11, 2001, there also seems to be a growing public perception that such conduct is harmless, especially since no bombs were exploded and no one was killed. This defendant, like many others we have investigated, tried to argue that his criminal conduct and activities were protected by the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The FBI does not buy that argument and today the jury agreed.” Jones added, “I would like to thank our law enforcement and intelligence community partners, domestic and international, who provided tremendous assistance to the Atlanta FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force throughout the investigation and prosecution of Sadequee, Syed Haris Ahmed, and their co-conspirators.”

The government alleged at trial that Sadequee and his co-conspirators used the internet to develop relationships and maintain contact with other supporters of violent jihad in the U.S. and around the world.

Current Status of U.S. “Material Support” Laws: As the Law Stands Today

The Sri Lanka-born Naturalized U.S. citizen New York immigration attorney Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran and others associated with human rights organizations in the United States and a prominent rights advocate Georgetown University law professor David Cole since late nineties sought the U.S. legal system to strike the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) a.k.a. Tamil Tigers from the State Department list of designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTO).

Rudrakumaran, while being an advocate to the ‘cause’ of the Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka, endeavored through U.S. District and Appeal Courts to get an interpretation to the “Material Support” laws to facilitate him, Tamil Tiger advocates in the U.S. and LTTE front organizations operating in the United States to provide “material Support” to the efforts of the Tamil Tigers. The FBI which is the investigative agency under the U.S. Justice Department and the U.S. State Department are aware that the LTTE endeavors to advance its goal of a separate state in the north and east of Sri Lanka by using terror tactics through mass killings and assassinations of political leaders opposed to its endeavors.

On January 05 this year (2009) the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit finally gave its legal interpretation and decided the constitutionality of the “Material Support” laws Rudrakumaran and his cohorts were endeavoring to ‘beat’ in the U.S. legal system.

The Appeal Court on January 05, 2009 gave its judgment on the constitutionality of Sections 302 and 303 of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA) and its 2004 amendment, the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA).
Section 302(a) of AEDPA (codified in 8 U.S.C. 1189) authorizes the Secretary of State to designate a group as a “foreign terrorist organization”.

Section 303(a) makes it a crime for anyone to provide support to even the nonviolent activities of the designated organization as clearly stated in 18 U.S.C. 2339B(a).

Specifically, 8 U.S.C 1189(a)(1) authorizes the Secretary of State to designate an organization as a foreign terrorist organization . . . if the Secretary finds that (A) the organization is a foreign organization; (B) the organization engages in terrorist activity; and (C) the terrorist activity or terrorism of the organization threatens the security of United States nationals or the national security of the United States.

The plaintiffs who were before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit which on January 05, 2009 gave its interpretation of the “Material Support” laws were David Cole, Georgetown University Law Center; Shayna Kadidal, Center for Constitutional Rights; Carol A. Sobel, Law Office of Carol A. Sobel; Paul L. Hoffman, Schonbrun, De Simone, Seplow Harris & Hoffman, LLP; Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran, Plaintiff World Tamil Coordinating Committee.

Following the judgment of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit here’s where the law on ‘Material Support” to U.S. designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTO) stands today until the U.S. Supreme Court on a future date gives a different interpretation as to the constitutionality of the “Material” laws.

( 1) Knowledge of the person who provides material support to an FTO and that the organization was designated as a foreign terrorist organization or that the donor had knowledge of the organization’s unlawful activities that caused it to be so designated was one issue the Court of Appeal settled in its 05 January 2009 decision.

On December 17, 2004 the U.S. Congress passed the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (“IRTPA”) which amended AEDPA. As amended, AEDPA now provides in part: Whoever knowingly provides material support or resources to a foreign terrorist organization, or attempts or conspires to do so, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 15 years, or both, and, if the death of any person results, shall be imprisoned for any term of years or for life.

In 18 U.S.C. § 2339A(b)(3) “Personnel” includes “1 or more individuals” who “work under the[e] terrorist organization’s direction or control or [who] organize, manage, supervise, or otherwise direct the operation of that organization.”

In 18 U.S.C. § 2339B(h). AEDPA, as amended by IRTPA, narrows the definition of “personnel” by providing that “individuals who act entirely independently of the foreign terrorist organization to advance its goals or objectives shall not be considered to be working under the foreign terrorist organization’s direction or control.”

Providing “material support or resources” to a designated foreign terrorist organization includes a mens rea (knowledge) requirement. To violate the statute, a person who provides “material support or resources” to a designated organization must know that (1) “the organization is a designated terrorist organization,”(2) “the organization has engaged or engages in terrorist activity,” or that (3) “the organization has engaged or engages in terrorism.” 18 U.S.C. § 2339B(a)(1) is very clear on this.

This Section exposes one to criminal liability only where the government proves that the donor defendant acted with culpable intent — knowledge.

Thus, the Appeal Court determined in its ruling on 05 January 2009, that a person with such knowledge is put on notice that “providing material support or resources” to a designated foreign terrorist organization is unlawful.

Accordingly, the Court of Appeal held that the amended version of section 2339B comports with the Fifth Amendment’s requirement of “personal guilt.”

The following section of the ruling by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit on 05 January 2009 clears several misconceptions the plaintiffs (Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran and others) presented in their oral arguments, and the Appeal Court’s interpretation of “material support” laws determines where the law stands today.

Here is the quote from the Appeal Court ruling:

(Begin Quote) “At oral argument, Plaintiffs conceded that, were we to read into section 2339B a specific intent requirement that the person providing “material support or resources” do so with an intent to further the organization’s unlawful goals (terrorist activity), we would be extending Scales. Because we find that acting with “knowledge” satisfies the requirement of “personal guilt” and eliminates any due process concerns, we decline Plaintiffs’ invitation to extend the holding in Scales. (Scales v. United States, 367 U.S. 203 (1961)

“In Scales, the Supreme Court held that it was wrong to impute criminal guilt based on membership in an organization without proof that the defendant acted with culpable intent. As amended, section 2339B(a) does not proscribe membership in or association with the terrorist organizations, but seeks to punish only those who have provided “material support or resources” to a foreign terrorist organization withknowledge that the organization was a designated foreign terrorist organization, or that it is or has engaged in terrorist activities or terrorism. Accordingly, unlike the statute in Scales which was silent with respect to requisite mens rea, section 2339B(a) exposes one to criminal liability only where the government proves that the donor defendant acted with culpable intent — knowledge.

“Vicarious liability involves holding one person accountable for the actions of another. Section 2339B(a) criminalizes the act of knowingly providing “material support or resources” to a designated foreign terrorist organization. Donor defendants are penalized for the criminal act of support. Donor defendants cannot be penalized under section 2339B(a) for the illegal conduct of the donee organization.

“Unlike the statute at issue in Ferguson, section 2339B(a) seeks to punish only those who commit the acts proscribed by the statute. In other words, a person who provides “material support or resources” to a designated foreign terrorist organization is liable for knowingly doing so in violation of section 2339B(a). Section 2339B(a) does not impose “vicarious criminal liability” because the statute cannot be invoked to punish the donor defendant for crimes committed by the donee foreign terrorist organization. A person cannot be convicted of murder under section 2339B(a) if the foreign terrorist organization committed an act of terrorism that took innocent lives. In sum, because section 2339B(a) does not impose “vicarious criminal liability,” due process is satisfied without proof of specific intent to further the organization’s illegal goals.(End Quote)

Note what the Appeal Court says: “In sum, because section 2339B(a) does not impose “vicarious criminal liability,” due process is satisfied without proof of specific intent to further the organization’s illegal goals.”

(2) Personnel support to a designated Foreign Terrorist Organization was another issue that the U.S. Court of Appeal settled in its 05 January 2009 judgment.

In 18 U.S.C. § 2339B(a)(1) the term “material support or resources” includes: any property, tangible or intangible, or service, including currency or monetary instruments or financial securities, financial services, lodging, training, expert advice or assistance, safehouses, false documentation or identification, communications equipment, facilities, weapons, lethal substances, explosives, personnel (1 or more individuals who may be or include oneself), and transportation, except medicine or religious materials.

18 U.S.C. § 2339A(b) In enacting IRTPA, Congress amended the definition of “material support or resources” to include an additional ban on providing “service.” Congress also defined for the first time the terms “training” and “expert advice or assistance,” 18 U.S.C. § 2339(A)(b)(2)-(3), and clarified the prohibition against providing “personnel” to designated organizations, 18 U.S.C. § 2339B(h).

In 18 U.S.C. § 2339A(b)(3) “Personnel” includes “1 or more individuals” who “work under the terrorist organization’s direction or control or [who] organize, manage, supervise, or otherwise direct the operation of that organization.” 18 U.S.C. § 2339B(h). AEDPA, as amended by IRTPA, narrows the definition of “personnel” by providing that “individuals who act entirely independently of the foreign terrorist organization to advance its goals or objectives shall not be considered to be working under the foreign terrorist organization’s direction or control.”

In 2004, Congress passed IRTPA which amended AEDPA. IRTPA added a limitation to the ban on providing “personnel.” 18 U.S.C. § 2339B(h) provides this legal definition. Section 2339B(h) clarifies that section 2339B(a) criminalizes providing “personnel” to a foreign terrorist organization only where a person, alone or with others, “works under that terrorist organization’s direction or control or . . . organizes, manage s, supervises, or otherwise directs the operation of that organization.” Section 2339B(h) also states that the ban on “personnel” does not criminalize the conduct of “individuals who act entirely independently of the foreign terrorist organization to advance its goals or objectives.”

Promoting Terrorism Abroad Under First Amendment Cover

Atlanta FBI Special Agent in Charge Gregory Jones said, “The FBI continues to investigate a growing number of cases involving U.S. citizens providing material support to terrorists. However, as we move further away from the tragic events of September 11, 2001, there also seems to be a growing public perception that such conduct is harmless, especially since no bombs were exploded and no one was killed. This defendant, like many others we have investigated, tried to argue that his criminal conduct and activities were protected by the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The FBI does not buy that argument and today the jury agreed.”

The FBI agent made the above remarks after the federal court in Georgia convicted a Bangladeshi American on 12 August 2009 Ehsanul Islam Sadequee for supporting terrorists and a foreign terrorist organization. Sadequee was convicted of (1) conspiring to provide material support to terrorists; (2) attempting to provide and providing material support to terrorists; (3) conspiring to provide material support to Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LET), a designated foreign terrorist organization; and (4) attempting to provide material support to LET.

The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”

In enacting “Material Support” laws the U.S. Congress determined that ‘foreign organizations that engage in terrorist activity are so tainted by their criminal conduct that any contribution to such an organization facilitates that conduct.’

The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in its ruling on 05 January 2009 declared (Begin Quote) As amended by IRTPA, AEDPA’s prohibition on providing “personnel” is not vague because the ban no longer “blurs the line between protected expression and unprotected conduct.”

“Section 2339B(h) clarifies that Plaintiffs advocating lawful causes of PKK and LTTE cannot be held liable for providing these organizations with “personnel” as long as they engage in such advocacy “entirely independently of those foreign terrorist organizations.” (End Quote)

Connected to the First Amendment rights the Court of Appeals further declared the following:

(Begin Quote) Section 2339B(a)’s ban on provision of “material support or resources” to designated foreign terrorist organizations undoubtedly has many legitimate applications. For instance, the importance of curbing terrorism cannot be underestimated.

Cutting off “material support or resources” from terrorist organizations deprives them of means with which to carry out acts of terrorism and potentially leads to their demise.
Thus, section 2339B(a) can legitimately be applied to criminalize facilitation of terrorism in the form of providing foreign terrorist organizations with income, weapons, or expertise in constructing explosive devices.

The Supreme Court cautioned in Hicks that “there are substantial social costs created by the overbreadth doctrine when it blocks application of a law to constitutionally unprotected speech, or especially to constitutionally unprotected conduct.”

Hicks, 539 U.S. at 119. Were we to restrain the government from enforcing section 2339B(a) that prohibits individuals in the United States from providing “material support or resources” to foreign terrorist organizations, we would potentially be placing our nation in danger of future terrorist attacks.

Moreover, although Plaintiffs may be able to identify particular instances of protected speech that may fall within the statute, those instances are not substantial when compared to the legitimate applications of section 2339B(a).

Thus, because AEDPA section 2339B is not aimed at expressive conduct and because it does not cover a substantial amount of protected speech, we hold that the prohibition against providing “material support or resources” to a foreign terrorist organization is not facially overbroad. (End Quote)

Concluding Remarks

The record is very clear that Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran had close working relationship with Sri Lanka’s LTTE which is a designated FTO under U.S. federal laws. His statements and his collaboration with the operation of the LTTE to further the latter’s goals are clear indications that he does not fall within the reading of Section 2339B(h) which states that the ban on “personnel” does not criminalize the conduct of “individuals who act entirely independently of the foreign terrorist organization to advance its goals and objectives.”

What the U.S. Justice Department needs to ascertain is whether Rudrakumaran’s actions falls within the definition of Section 2339B(h). Section 2339B(h) clarifies that section 2339B(a) criminalizes providing “personnel” to a foreign terrorist organization only where a person, alone or with others, “works under that terrorist organization’s direction or control or . . . organizes, manages, supervises, or otherwise directs the operation of that organization.”

What type of a relationship did Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran maintained with the hierarchy of the LTTE? According to established reports his association seems to have been at the highest level under the direction of the LTTE. And, did he direct the operation of the LTTE in the spheres of legal and political conduct essential for it to advance its goals and objectives.

The next issue before Rudrakumaran is whether he was aware that he was dealing with an organization which uses terror as a weapon and that the organization is a designated FTO by the United States.

Terrorist to one is a liberation fighter to another. To Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran the Tamil Tigers are liberation fighters but to U.S. authorities it is a Foreign Terrorist Organization.

Providing “material support or resources” to a designated foreign terrorist organization includes a mens rea (knowledge) requirement. To violate the statute, a person who provides “material support or resources” to a designated organization must know that (1) “the organization is a designated terrorist organization,”(2) “the organization has engaged or engages in terrorist activity,” or that (3) “the organization has engaged or engages in terrorism.” 18 U.S.C. § 2339B(a)(1) is very clear on this.

The argument that the LTTE is a liberation organization does not negate 18 U.S.C. § 2339B(a)(1)

This Section exposes one to criminal liability only where the government proves that the donor defendant acted with culpable intent — knowledge.

Thus, the Appeal Court determined in its ruling on 05 January 2009, that a person with such knowledge is put on notice that “providing material support or resources” to a designated foreign terrorist organization is unlawful.

Accordingly, the Court of Appeal held that the amended version of section 2339B comports with the Fifth Amendment’s requirement of “personal guilt.”

Atlanta FBI Special Agent in Charge Gregory Jones said, “The FBI continues to investigate a growing number of cases involving U.S. citizens providing material support to terrorists. However, as we move further away from the tragic events of September 11, 2001, there also seems to be a growing public perception that such conduct is harmless, especially since no bombs were exploded and no one was killed. This defendant, like many others we have investigated, tried to argue that his criminal conduct and activities were protected by the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The FBI does not buy that argument and today the jury agreed.”

The most interesting observation by the FBI agent is: “there also seems to be a growing public perception that such conduct is harmless, especially since no bombs were exploded and no one was killed.”

The ‘conduct’ is taking cover behind the First Amendment to advance the cause of a Foreign Terrorist Organization.

In enacting “Material Support” laws the U.S. Congress determined that ‘foreign organizations that engage in terrorist activity are so tainted by their criminal conduct that any contribution to such an organization facilitates that conduct.’

Then Rudrakumaran’s declaration that the LTTE has the right to procure arms and import because it is a liberation movement needs serious consideration.

He made the remarks while Selvarasa Pathmanathan a.k.a ‘KP’ who is being interrogated by the Sri Lankan authorities at present in Colombo was engaged in ‘arms deals’ internationally to militarily equip the LTTE to use its standard terror tactics to promote its goal to achieve a separate mono ethnic state.

Was Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran aware of Pathmanathan’s international endeavors at a time he made the statement that TamilCanadian carried in its July 10, 2006 web page?
Rudrakumaran proclaimed in TamilCanadian: “Moreover, the LTTE is a national liberation movement. Thus, it can be argued under U.N. General Assembly Resolutions 3034 and 3314 that the LTTE has a right to import arms for the realization of the right to self-determination. Also under the international law concept of self-defense and self-help, the LTTE can import arms.”

This politico-legal interpretation of the conduct of Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran and “Material Support” laws as they stand today is a reminder to the Sri Lankan authorities that it needs to focus much attention to activities that are taking place on behalf of the goals and aspirations of the LTTE in the international arena which can harm the progress that this South Asian nation has undertaken to redress the grievances of all ethnic communities. Rudrakumaran’s endeavors at present may further complicate the relations Sri Lanka has with the West.

Sri Lanka has internally defeated the LTTE but needs to go beyond her shores to prevent the Outfit becoming an influential lobby in the West which Rudrakumaran intends to build.
Sri Lanka needs to work with the United States Department of Justice and its investigative arm the FBI and the State Department to get cogent answers surrounding the behavior of Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran who is subject to U.S. laws, definitely covered by the many antiterrorism laws and ‘Material Support’ laws.

Unless the United States Supreme Court gives a separate judgment in a later date on Material Support laws the interpretation given by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit last January prevails, and Sri Lankan and U.S. authorities could work around this interpretation to get some answers about the conduct of Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran.

And, Assistant Secretary Robert Blake who made a proclamation in Colombo that Rudrakumaran is ‘just an adviser’ and not a “well known LTTE activist” needs to enlighten us in the light of the above presentation. Seasoned diplomats do not ignore when the media expect explanations arising out of a statement attributed to him which involved relations between two nations that are eager to drop the rhetoric and mend fences.

- Asian Tribune -

 

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Rump LTTE Files Charges Against Rajapaksa In New York

Rudrakumaran (2nd from left) beside LTTE Supreme Commander Prabhakaran

The tactics of the LTTE know no boundaries. In war, they stooped to killing their own, and doctored videos. Despite their defeat on the battlefield in May 2009, pro LTTE forces (better known as the ‘rump LTTE’) among the considerable Tamil Diaspora worldwide are launching all kinds of attacks against the Sri Lankan government via international agencies such as the U.N.; NGO’s such as Amnesty and Human Rights Watch, and media outlets such as the U.K.’s Channel 4. In the latest salvo of this all-out propaganda “war,” Visvanathan Rudrakumaran, A Tamil attorney and member of the LTTE delegation to the Oslo-managed talks in 2002-2003, filed criminal charges against Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa for the unlawful killing of notorious Tiger Commander Colonel Ramesh on behalf of Ramesh’s alleged wife, Vathsala Devi, herself a former LTTE cadre, who escaped at the end of the war.

 

No matter that the LTTE has been proscribed as a known terrorist organization by 82 countries or that Rudrakumaran currently ranks as “Prime Minister’’ of the Provisional Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam (TGTE) and one of the most influential LTTE leader’s in the post-Prabhakaran era. The audacity of this charge reaches to the heights of lunacy and would be tantamount to one of Bin Laden’s widows filing a murder charge against Barak Obama.

 

 

http://www.island.lk/index.php?page_cat=article-details&page=article-details&code_title=35439

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Daily News Editorial: “Points the world should ponder on”

As members of the international community continue to attack the government of Sri Lanka for its eradication of terrorism, the inherent hypocrisy is clearly and succinctly elucidated in the following editorial, which appeared in Sri Lanka’s Daily News on September 26th:

 

When the UN system was brought into being in 1945, it was primarily designed to prevent war and conflict in the world. That was the aftermath of the Second World War which claimed lives in the tens of millions and perpetrated unprecedented devastation over the face of the earth. Mankind, at that time, was more than eager to bid goodbye to the dreadful institution of war. The UN Charter was seen as the ideal blueprint for a world where conflicts and rifts among humans would be resolved by peaceful means, such as, dialogue and a meeting of minds.

It is decades since this new world order was conceived and given concrete shape to a degree, but war has continued to dog mankind at his heels and is still being ravenously resorted to by particularly the more powerful members of the international community, thus rubbishing the vision of a peaceful world underlying the UN system and its Charter. All of this, however, in no way invalidates the UN system and its principal vision and policy trajectory. A world free of conflict and war must be striven for on the part of all who have won membership of the UN.

President Mahinda Rajapaksa’s address to the UN General Assembly last Friday, was of profound relevance because it drew the attention of the world and of its leaders to some of these founding principles of the UN. Sovereign equality among the states of the UN, for instance, is a cardinal founding ideal of the UN system. Under this order of things, there could be no question of one state or states, coercing any other state or states into doing their bidding. Since, peace is the motivating ideal of the UN, conflicts among states need to be resolved through the use of peaceful methods, such as, dialogue and rational persuasion. This was, very correctly, underscored by the Sri Lankan President.

But such golden rules of interaction among the world’s states have been observed more in the breach, particularly on the part of those states which have emerged as the predominant military and political powers of the world, and the post Second World War new world order is shown up as having nothing particularly new to offer. Nevertheless, we believe that the UN and its principles should be abided by in this highly imperfect world of ours because international anarchy could only result in the states of the world doing each other mortal, irreparable harm.

By saying this we do not intend to imply that the UN system has proved ineffective. Far from implying so, we wish to place on record that the UN specialized agencies in particular, have done yeoman service for the powerless of the world over the decades and are continuing very courageously to do so. For these reasons, the UN continues to earn the gratitude and admiration of the poor and powerless.

But there is no ignoring the need for UN reform and we believe that it is up to the powerful members of the UN system to address these needs. By reform we do not only have in mind fundamental reforms, such as, the sufficient enlargement of the UN Security Council to enable it to reflect the current global military and economic balance, but also what President Rajapaksa in his UNSG address referred to as ‘inconsistent standards and discriminating approaches that can unintentionally give a fresh lease of life to the forces of terror.’

Since the collapse of the Cold War and the emergence of what is called a ‘multi-polar’ world, self interest has been increasingly driving the states of the world in an unprecedented way. Self-interest has always been a motivating factor in the behaviour of states, but this trend could be expected to accelerate after the collapse of the relatively rigorous structures which held the world together in the Cold War days.

This is not in any way an endorsement of the Cold War world order, but an emphatic reminder that the world needs to conduct its relations on the basis of impartiality, justice and equality if the world political order is to be prevented from descending into greater anarchy and disorder.

In the case of Sri Lanka , there is no doubt that she is being unfairly treated over the Darusman Report and the resultant issues. Sri Lanka has exercised its inalienable sovereign right to defend its territorial integrity by defeating the LTTE and the powerful of the world would be only giving the LTTE and its supporters a new lease of life by unjustifiably faulting Sri Lanka . In other words, terror is being given a fillip. This is a warm invitation to greater international disorder.

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Rajapaksa Hits The U.N.

Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa was among the world leaders who descended on New York City this past week for  the U.N. General Assembly. Here are some photo highlights.

http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2011/09/25/new75.pdf

And following is the text of his speech:

“It is with great pleasure that I congratulate Your Excellency Nassir Abdul Aziz Al-Nasser on your assumption of the Presidency of the 66th Session of the UN General Assembly. I must also congratulate His Excellency Ban Ki-moon warmly on his re-election as Secretary-General of the UN and we look forward to working with him constructively.

As we gather here today, it is appropriate to reflect on the values and ideals which inspire the United Nations system. One of the principal attributes is the spirit of flexibility which has always been a feature of the United Nations.

We must acknowledge the need for that spirit of openness and adaptability today, more than at any other time. This is because the foundations of the world order are being transformed dramatically and fundamentally. At the heart of these changes is the need to protect smaller countries in the developing world and to advance their interests vigorously.

In the midst of uncertainty there are some things which must remain constant. These reflect our esteemed beliefs and convictions. Despite repeated references in this Assembly by many member countries on the right of the Palestinian people to a State of their own within secure borders, we still have not been able to make it a reality.

It is a matter for profound disappointment that this has not yet happened. There is a window of opportunity now and we must make use of it before it is too late. It is time for decisive action rather than more discussion. This will be in the interest of the security and the well-being of the entire region including Israel

The need for sustained support for countries of the African continent at this critical time is also worthy of mention.

It is important to remind ourselves that every country cherishes the values and traditions, and deeply held religious convictions it has nurtured over the centuries.

These cannot be diluted or distorted under the guise of human rights, by the imposition of attitudes or approaches which are characteristics of alien cultures.

Impact of sanctions

If this were done, it would amount to a violation of human rights in a fundamental sense. It must also be pointed out that even where sanctions are imposed, extreme care has to be taken to ensure that the people at large, men, women and children yet to be born, are not harmed by such action. I would also express, once again, my solidarity with the people of Cuba and I wish them all success.

Whilst the clash of ideas, opinions and values continues, we have clearly to recognise that dialogue, deliberation and consensus offer the only viable means for resolving differences. The might of powerful nations cannot prevail against justice and fairplay.

In the troubled times in which we live, we can derive guidance from the wise words of Gautama Buddha who advised the Lichchavi Princes, whose energies were being consumed by bitter disputes among them, that the way forward consists of meeting, discussing and departing in an atmosphere of amity and goodwill. This represents the essential spirit of the United Nations, particularly relevant today.

The most significant challenge to stability and progress in the modern world is posed by the menace of terrorism. Recent experiences the world over amply demonstrate that inconsistent standards and discriminating approaches can unintentionally give a fresh lease of life to the forces of terror. An explicit and uniform response which refuses to recognise political shades of terrorism, is necessarily required.

Terrorism presents a threat from which not even the wealthiest and most powerful of nations are immune. It must be remembered, as well, that terrorist groups frequently operate under the guise of front organisations. Conferring legitimacy on these has the inevitable effect of providing comfort and encouragement to the merchants of terror.

Solid political action

As the leader of a nation which has paid a heavy price due to terrorism over a quarter of a century, I would underline that we must firmly resolve to rid the world of terrorism. We need to have solid practical action on the ground, and send out our collective message on this issue loud and clear universally.

The interests of the developing world needs to be protected in another significant respect. It is vitally important to insist that the structures and procedures of multilateral organisations are uniform and consistent and devoid of discrimination.

My country has reasons for concern with approaches tainted by an unacceptable degree of selectivity, which we have brought to the notice of the organisations in question in recent weeks.

The developing world must keep a vigil against these irregular modalities which should be resisted through our collective strength.

After three decades of pain and anguish, today, Sri Lankans of all ethnicities, living in all parts of Sri Lanka, are free from LTTE terror and no longer live in a state of fear.

However, I am deeply mindful that the battle for peace is every bit as important and difficult as the struggle against terror. After the eradication of terrorism, my Government has turned its undivided attention to building anew, the foundations of a unified and vibrant nation and drawing upon the inherent strengths of our country and in particular, the unique calibre of our human potential.

Successful resettlement

It is justifiable for us to be proud of our nation’s achievements during the brief span of 30 months which have elapsed since the beginning of the post-conflict phase. The resettlement of more than 95 percent of internally displaced persons, who constituted the largest number of civilians forcibly held by a terrorist group at any time, while continuing even today to clear the mines laid by terrorists in extensive areas is a proud achievement.

Today, in the Northern Province, the Armed Forces are engaged in development of the infrastructure which were destroyed by the terrorists during a period of three decades. Contrary to malicious propaganda, the numbers of the Armed forces present in the Northern Province is at a minimal level.

The revival of the economy has enhanced incomes and improved livelihoods, ex-combatants and other cadre after exposure to programs of vocational training and counselling have been re-integrated into society, the electoral process has been restored after decades, making possible the emergence of a democratic leadership. These are among our valued accomplishments.

The remarkable growth of 22 percent of the economy of the Northern Province is a clear indication of the success achieved by the Government’s initiatives with regard to development in that part of the country.

The GDP growth of the country has been consistent at eight percent, unemployment is at a record low of 4.5 percent and it is also worthy of mention that in the assessment by the World Economic Forum in its Global Competitiveness Report for 2011-2012, Sri Lanka shows dramatic improvement, moving up to 52nd from 79th over a span of two years.

It is worthy of note that all these developments have taken place within the brief space of 30 months – an achievement all the more significant because of our strong emphasis on reconciliation.

Important as economic development is, we have attached the highest priority to fostering the spirit of inclusivity and removing any remnants of bitterness from the hearts and minds of all our people.

More Tamil police officers

Over the last 30 months, we have recruited 669 Tamil police officers bringing the total number of Tamil officers to 1,143 while plans are afoot to recruit more this year and in the future.

After more than two decades, a census is being conducted in the Northern Province as a part of the national census, to provide a firm basis for our initiatives.

As a result of these achievements, what we see in Sri Lanka today is a self-reliant nation, with robust hope for the future, and a strong economy, strengthened by inward investment flows, unprecedented expansion of tourism and significant growth of volumes of international trade.

Towards consolidation of these trends, leaving behind us the trauma of the past, we ask of the international community the hand of friendship and goodwill, based on understanding of our nation’s determination to confront with courage the challenge of a new era in our history. We ask our friends in distant lands to drop pre-conceived notions. We strongly believe in home-grown solutions for them to be sustainable. It is clearly impractical to conceive of universal remedies for problems which afflict our societies.

My country, as it comes out of the darkness of the last three decades, into the light and promise of the future, must be afforded the time and space to seek its destiny in accordance with the wishes of its people.

It is in keeping with the values enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and the whole body of international law which governs us.

A further consideration that the international community should take into account is the vulnerability of developing nations and make provision, by means of appropriate institutional arrangements, for their protection. As I observed when inaugurating the 50th anniversary meeting of the Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee in Colombo three months ago, dumping of commercial and industrial goods manufactured in developed countries imperils the economies of many Asian and African countries represented here.

In conclusion, let me say that the use of substantial subsidies by treasuries and reserve banks to support agricultural production in the developed world, and other forms of protectionism, cause serious distortion of the interplay of market forces, and reduce to a great extent, the ability of farmers in many developing countries to access international markets for their export products on an equitable basis.

The disproportionate pollution of the environment by industrialised countries, and the resultant impact on global warming and climate change, cannot be remedied with any semblance of justice by imposing harsh restraints on developing countries which have contributed very little to aggravation of the problem. These circumstances heighten the importance of social equity at the international level.

May the Noble Triple Gem bless you all! Theruwan Saranai!”

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Radio Australia: Sri Lankan Envoy Speaks Out Against Commonwealth Suspension Call

Radio Australia:Connect Asia:Story:Sri Lankan envoy speaks out against Commonwealth suspension call.

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Mohan Peiris slams US for threatening Sri Lanka


By H.L.D. Mahindapala reporting from Geneva

At a side-event at the UN Human Rights Council held on September 11, 2011, Mohan Peiris, the former Attorney-General, lambasted the American Ambassadress, A. Donahue, when she threatened Sri Lanka with “growing pressure from the international community” if it does not demonstrate a willingness or ability to conduct an independent inquiry. In other words, America had already prejudged the outcome of the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC) and insists that Sri Lanka must obey the dictates of America or else…..?

The main thrust of the Western bloc is to downgrade and devalue the LLRC and impose an investigative mechanism with handpicked panelists of their own (like the Advisory Panel of Experts(APES) handpicked by the UN Secretary –General Ban Ki Moon) to produce a report that could be used by the West against Sri Lanka.

America’s provocative statement threatening to interfere in the domestic affairs of Sri Lanka under the cover of human rights and international humanitarian law was met with a sharp response from Mohan Peiris, who using all his forensic skills, told America bluntly that Sri Lanka is “averse to being threatened into submission”. He added in the same combative tone that Sri Lanka will not bend down to “veiled threats”.

He was emphatic when he said that he would not like to have US as his neighbour because when there is a domestic fight between the husband and wife US would step in to impose its will instead of reconciling the two parties.

He warned America that such “veiled threats do not have a place in today’s society.”

As Peiris was giving a public telling off to the American Ambassadress, without mincing his words, an official whispered into the ear of Mahinda Samarasinghe, who was presiding over the session, that Robert O’Blake who was in Colombo had taken a more conciliatory attitude and was agreeable to give Sri Lanka time and space. This message was announced openly to the assembly and the American Ambassadress was told that there seems to be some confusion in the American policy in Colombo and Geneva.

This dramatic explosion took place when leading members of the Human Rights Council had lined up to back Sri Lanka. Out of all the international representatives present at this side-event only America and EU struck a discordant note by trying to lay down the rules arrogantly as if they alone owned the monopoly to dictate morality to the rest of the world. They were angling to get an international investigation. But their aggression was countered by China, Russia, Pakistan and Cuba – all of whom openly supported the initiatives of Sri Lanka in opening up a free and frank dialogue on the issues facing Sri Lanka.

The brief but significant events that unravelled at this side-event make it clear that Sri Lanka is in the middle of the incrementally escalating Cold War between the West and the rest. The coming shape of global politics was once again displayed in the high and mighty attitude of the West dictating terms to the rest, on the one hand, and on the other, the allies of Sri Lanka expressing confidence in the local solutions, without foreign interventions. They argued for time and space for Sri Lanka to work out its own formulas for peace, progress and reconciliation.

China was most forthright in backing Sri Lanka when its representative told the assembly: ”Sri Lanka has suffered 500 years of colonialism. We were also victims of colonialism. We don’t need any external interference in our affairs. We hope there will be no interference in the domestic affairs of Sri Lanka too. Sri Lanka needs time and space for reconciliation and peace.”

This theme of colonialism raising its ugly head was emphasized by Mohan Peiris and a participant from Canada, Ms. Ira de Silva. The negative reaction to the American Ambassadress’ arrogant statement, as if America is high priest of international morality, was quite palpable. The impression she created in the assembly was that President Obama, despite his rhetoric, is now heading a neo-colonial regime to force dissident member states to fall in line with American foreign policy interests.

Diplomatic circles perceive the US-EU move as a part of the overall anti-Sri Lankan campaign to strengthen the hand of Navi Pillay, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, who is also pushing for an independent investigation. This US-EU-Navi Pillay combination has neither forgotten nor forgiven the shock of being defeated at the 2009 session of UNHRC which rejected the Western resolution to take punitive measures against Sri Lanka. On the contrary, it commended Sri Lanka for the humanitarian work done to rescue the 300,000 human shield used by Prabhakaran to save himself till the last moment.

In the immediate aftermath of the war against Tamil Tiger terrorists Navi Pillay opened the first post-war session of UNHRC held in 2009 by urging the Council to take punitive action against Sri Lanka for violations of human rights. This high-handed action where she decided to dictate to the UNHRC what it should do was backed by US-EU who initiated the resolution against Sri Lanka. She has no mandate to dictate to the UNHRC what course of action of it should follow. It is her duty take instructions from the UNHRC and not vice versa.

Both US-EU and Navi Pillay felt jilted when the UNHRC rejected their anti-Sri Lankan resolution. Ever since then she has acted viciously against Sri Lanka like a women scorned. Nor has the US-EU combination stopped its campaign to get even with Sri Lanka for defeating this big power bloc at the UNHRC in 2009.

Predictably, Navi Pillay opened her latest statement to the 18th session of the Human Rights Council by naming only Sri Lanka but not US for consequences arising from “counter-terrorist operations”. She mentions in her speech that “in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan the killing of civilians by opponents as well as by governmental and international forces engaged in counter-terrorism operations, continue to be a major concern.” But she does not name “the successive governments” of US as the primary source of ”undermining independent institutions, violating human rights and the rule of law” in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan, not to mention the Middle-Eastern countries before and after the ”Arab spring”. Her bias comes out openly when she picks only Sri Lanka as her example of a bad case of engaging in counter-terrorism.

Of all the nations engaged in combating terrorism, including US, which is spear-heading the global anti-terrorist campaign, why has she named only Sri Lanka? Diplomats interpret this as a sly move of Navy Pillai to focus on Sri Lanka as the first step towards paving the way to put Sri Lanka on the dock and not US which has acted with impunity in combating terrorist enemies of the US globally. If she was even-handed she should have mentioned US too which has been the primary source of violating human rights in wars combating terrorists – from rendition, torture, passing the Patriotic Act, to crossing international borders violating international law and assassinating Osama Bin Laden without giving him a fair trial etc. But the crimes of US are glossed over as “international forces engaged in counter-terrorism operations” and she decides to cite Sri Lanka as a bad case. Is her vision that blinkered to avoid seeing the big picture on the global map of terrorism or is she brain-washed only to see what is shown to her by her political masters?

Besides, the unfolding events indicate that there is a current underhand move to use Navi Pillay as the paw to pull out the chestnuts of Ban Ki Moon and US-EU manipulating jointly to force an international investigation into the last days of the war against Tamil Tiger terrorists. Mahinda Samarasinghe exposed the secret plot of this gang to the Council members of the UNHRC session. According to him Ban Ki Moon has passed the buck to Navi Pillay saying that he doesn’t have the powers to deal with the report of the APES which he (UNSG) appointed.

This move is like providing ladders to leaping monkeys: it makes their tasks easier. Armed with this report of the UN APES, Navi Pillay will be assiduously exploring avenues to undo what the 2009 session of UNHRC did in rejecting her proposal to take action against Sri Lanka.

In terms of procedure the matter should have ended in 2009 when the UNHRC commended Sri Lanka for its benevolent humanitarian action in saving nearly 300,000 Tamil IDPs – including the elderly parents of Prabhakaran, ”the latest Pol Pot of Asia”, (New York Times, June 25, 1995). But the vindictive politics of Navi Pillay and the US-EU combination is bent on increasing international pressure until Sri Lanka caves in.

Sri Lankan delegation to the current 18th session of UNHRC is waiting with bated breath, not knowing whether a resolution will be tabled against them or not. So far (13th, September, 2011) there are no signs of such a move. But diplomatic circles are certain that the West, jointly with the Navi Pillay, will manipulate to get one on the table if they feel that they have the numbers to push it through the UNHRC.

A significant aside at the current session is the rather docile tone of the representatives of the Tamil expatriates. In the past they used to invade the UNHRC sessions in full force with American and British backers of the Tamil Tiger terrorists campaigning aggressively in the lobby, cafeteria and inside the sessions. This time the lobbying cadres were limited to three visible representatives of the European Tamil expatriates: Fr. S. J. Emmanuel, head of the Global Tamil Forum in UK, Kirubakaran of France, and Gary Anandasangaree of Canada.

Fr. Emmanuel appeared to be conciliatory though he is leading the anti-Sri Lankan campaign in Europe. In a conversation with me he was emphasizing the need for a dialogue to resolve differences. He emphatically denied he was for the Tamil Tiger terrorists. When I pointed out that he wrote his book, Let my people go, to lend his moral, religious and political support to Prabhakaran after the Tamil Tigers forcibly herded the Jaffna Tamils into the Vanni, which he compared to Moses leading the people out of Egypt, he denied that he supported the Tamil Tigers or wrote anything against Buddhism or any other religion.

When I asked him how he proposes to meet his Maker wrapped in the obscene Tiger flag of Prabhakaran, with a snarling Tiger putting his head out of a ring of 33 bullets crowned with fixed bayonets of two crossed guns, he dodged it with a shy smile. He, however, went out of his way to blame the Churches – the only nation-wide institution which had bases in both communities — for not building bridges between the two communities. He added that he had raised this issue with Cardinal Malcolm Ranjith who was his pupil.

I asked him how the Church could build bridges when it allowed the Holy Mary statue to be hijacked by the Tamil Tigers into their territory depriving the Sinhala Catholics of sharing it with all other Christians he smiled again and said: “What we have to do now is to build a united Sri Lanka.”

Can Fr. Emmanuel, the former Vicar of Jaffna, who once said that he was first a Tamil and second a Christian, and also compared Prabhakaran to Jesus Christ the liberator, change his stripes? At the height of Prabhakaran’s power he along with Bishop S. Jebanesan promised to write an exclusive theology for Tamils as if the Jaffna Tamils were the chosen tribe of the Christian God. They have not produced such a document as far as I know. Perhaps, the loss of political power may have cast doubts as to whether the likes of Prabhakaran are children of God or Satan.

Anyway, I was somewhat taken aback to hear Fr. Emmanuel calling for “a united Sri Lanka.” Before I could say “”Ämen” to that we were disturbed with calls to have a cup of tea with ulundu vadai and patties and sandwiches for lunch.

Anyway, if Fr. Emmanuel genuinely means what he says (we have to assume Catholic priest at that level never tell lies) then there is hope for a united Sri Lanka where the old and divisive politics of separatism have come to an end for good.

The time of Prabhakarans has come and gone. Deluded Tamils in the diaspora are still hoping he would rise from the grave and re-visit them. But even Fr. Emmanuel knows that there has been only one Lazarus so far. Not all the theologies and poojas of Jaffna Tamil priests can make Prabhakaran rise again. And the gospel truth is that that the peace-loving peoples of Sri Lanka would unhesitatingly say “Amen” to that!

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